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History of Architecture Timeline

Neolithic to Renaissance buildings
by

Shannon Standish

on 3 March 2013

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Transcript of History of Architecture Timeline

ARCHITECTURE 2012 CE 10,000 BCE 5,000 BCE 9,000 BCE 8,000 BCE 7,000 BCE 6,000 BCE 4,000 BCE 3,000 BCE 2,000 BCE 1,000 BCE 1 CE Neolithic Period 10,000-1,500 BCE Jericho, Isreal 8,000 BCE One of the earliest known communities, Jericho was a fortified settlement. It had a stone wall up to 27ft thick that enclosed an area of 10 acres. The farmers and hunters who lived there, had circular mud huts as houses. Catal Huyuk 6ooo BCE Catal Huyuk was a dense group of dwellings without streets between. Houses were acessed from the roof, and among the houses were windowless shrines to bulls and deities. Houses were made with mud-brick walls and a timber framework. In Anatolia. Passage Grave at Newgrange 3,100 BCE Built in County Meath, Ireland the Passage Grave at Newgrange is a megalith structure with an earth mound nearly 300 ft in diameter and 36ft high covering the tomb. There is a south facing entry (that allows light through on the winter solstice) that leads to a cruciform chamber covered in a beehive corbeled ceiling twenty feet high. Some of the stones are dcorated with patterns. Stonehenge 2900 BCE-1400 BCE In 2900 BCE 2 concentric dtches were excavated, the Aubrey holes (56 evenly spaced holes filled with chalk) were dug, and the northeastern path was established over the heel stone. In 2400 BCE grey-blue dolerite from Whales was placed in a double ring of 38 pairs and then removed (the Q and R holes). Later 35 lintels and 40 sarcen stones (sandstone), weighing up to 20 tons each, were erected in a circle of 30 uprights enclosing 5 trilithons (2 stones capped by one) in a U shape. The stones were fitted with mortise and tenon joints. Located on the Salisbury Plain in Southwestern England, Stonehenge is a megalith constructed in 3 phases. It was used as an observatory to observe the solstices and establish a calender. Construction: Sumerian 4000-2350 BCE Sumerian was the first civilization ever formed. It was a city-state, a political and religious center devoted to serving god based on natural elements. As such, they had temples at the core of their cities. Uruk, Sumerian (and the White Temple) 3500-3000 BCE Built on a forty foot rubble pile from past buildings, the White Temple was provided with a protective coat of whitewash over its sloping walls of earth covered with sun-dried brick. Entrance was through a chamber on the long side, so that a "bent axis" led from the outside into the hall and sanctuary. Akkadian Empire 2350-2150 BCE Semitic speaking people from the cities of Sipar and Akkad overthrew Sumerian civilization. They were governed by the priest class and a warrior-king, and adopted many aspects of Sumerian culture. Great Temple of Ramses II 1285-1255 BCE Neo-Sumerian Period 2150-2000 BCE The Akkadian Empire was overthrown by the Guti, a group of tribes from the mountainous regions of Iran. There weak rule brought about a revival of the city-state. During this period temples developed into the form of a ziggurat. 2100 BCE Ziggurat at Ur The only remaining ziggurat, the temple at Ur, was 70ft high and 200 by 150ft at the base. It had 3 main stairways leading to the first tier, and several smaller stairs leading to the upper tiers and temple- these were only accessible for the priests. Babylonian Empire 1728-1686 BCE Hammurabi took control of Babylon, founded by the Amorite dynasty. He created the Empire and enforced his own "Hammurabi code." The empire dissolved after his death. Assyrians 1830 BCE The Assyrians took over southern Mesopotamia and began building strongly fortified citadels for their capitals. Palace of Sargon II 720 BCE Built in Khorsabad (the Assyrian capital of the time), the palace was built through one of the walls of the city. It was on a plateau 50ft above the city, and was 25 acres. It held a series of courts for administrative functions, along with a seven-stage ziggurat, and a throne room. The palace was decorated with reliefs depicting the monarch as a man, eagle and bull, and armies burning, pillaging and killing. Persia 560 BCE The Persian Empire takes shape and begins conquering the entire civilized world, except for the Greek peninsula. Also called the Achaemenian Empire. Palace at Persepolis 520 BCE The city was founded as a ceremonial capital for the rising empire of Persia. Because they lacked their own architects and architectural traditions, the Persians borrowed ideas and artisans from the cultures they conquered. It had two main audience halls. The Hall of Xerxes was the largest roofed space in the palace. Known as the hall of a hundred columns, it was able to contain 10,000 people. The Hall of Darius was accessed by a grand staircase lined
with sculptures
showing 23
different conquered
nations bringing
offerings to the king. Alexander the Great 331 BCE Alexander the Great ended the Persian empire and eventually conquested all the way to India. Persian artisans must have accompanied him because a lot of Indian architecture shows strong ties to the Palace at Persepolis. unification of Egypt 3000 BCE Lower and upper Egypt were unified by Menes, the king of upper Egypt. He established a capital at Memphis. This began the Early Dynastic Period Mastabas 2950-2150 BCE The earliest tombs, Mastabas were a block-like structure designed to look like the houses of the living. They were made of brick and later stone for more permanence. The body was placed underground to deter robbers and offerings to the body were left in the above-ground chamber, or serdab. Ishtar Gate, Babylon 610-540 BCE Stepped Pyramid of King Djoser 2600 BCE Imhotep The first monumental stone structure in Egypt, the pyramid was the result of the stacking and enlarging of 6 mastabas. Built just outside of Memphis, in Saqqara, Egypt, the complex enclosed an area of 35 acres and included a processional hall, courtyard, and rooms for unknown rituals. These had a facade assumed to look like the king's palace, with engaged columns. Great Pyramids 2550-2450 BCE The last kings of the fourth dynasty made an unprecedented jump in size, which had never been repeated since. Built to commemorate his victories over the Hitaits, Ramesses II built this temple at Abu Simbel, Egypt. It has 4 massive statues of Ramesses II guarding the gate, which are 60ft tall. The temple itself is rock cut and similar to a pylon from the complex at Karnak. Cut 200ft into the cliff, a hypostyle hall lies behind the gate with 8 Ramesses II statues acting as unnecessary columns. Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut 1475-1460 BCE Senmut The temple was inspired by, and built next to the tomb of Mentuhotep II. Built in Deir el-Bahri, Egypt, the mortuary chapel was dedicated to the sun God Amun (associated with the pharaoh). The temple had 3 terraces held by colonnades, reached by long ramps. It had an axial procession way that lead from the road, up the ramps, through the temple to a back wall with a painted door. Some Great Temple of Amun 1550-1225 BCE This massive complex at Karnak was begun in 1550 BCE and was added to by many of the following pharaohs. A hypostyle hall added by Ramesses II was the most grand. It had a clerestory above the central axis, in which light filter through creating a sense of majesty. Great gates (pylons) lined the procession way and symbolized the eastern mountains and the gates to the underworld. Palace at Knossos 1700-1400 BCE The Palace at Knossos is the largest and best surviving demonstration of Minoan architecture. Built in Crete, on a hill overlooking the harbor, the complex was multiple stories. It was rebuilt several times due to earthquakes and fires. The top floors had ruble filled walls held by wood, and the bottom floor was ashlar masonry. It held rooms for ceremony, living space, and stairwells, centered around a large courtyard. The Palace had a non-axial plan, and could be considered a labyrinth. Several rooms held lustral-basins used for rituals. Distinctive downward sloping columns, based on a tree trunk, were often used. Even the plumbing was advanced for its time. Lion Gate 1300 BCE Treasury of Atreus The main entrance to the citadel of Mycenae was the Lion's Gate. It consisted of 2 upright stones supporting a 14 ton lintel. Above the lintel was a corbeled arch, which was filled
with a triangular stone. The
stone had a relief carving of two
lions facing a tree column (like
those of Knossos). The gate was
part of a larger cyclopean
constructed fortified citadel. 1330 BCE The Treasury of Atreus was one of nine circular tombs found near Mycenae, Greece. It was a corbeled stone chamber, that rose 44ft, with a 48ft diameter base. The tomb was covered with an earthen mound to provide stability to the dry stone masonry. Temple of Hera 550 BCE One of the few surviving temples from the Archaic time period, this temple is uses a doric order. It has pinched looking echinus and rather squat column forms. There are 9 columns on the front, which is unusual, and a row of columns through the center of the naos to provide structural support. The spacing between columns is different from the front to the sides. Parthenon 448-432 BCE Iktinos and Kallikrates Built on the site of the Old Parthenon (destroyed in the sacking of Athens), this Parthenon was made of the finest marble and was of the Doric style, with Ionic influences (the opsithodomos columns were ionic, doric columns were slender, and the frieze was continous). The temple had 8 columns at the front (a early ionic style) and 17 columns on the sides. The stylobate was convex uppward and the columns were slanted slightly inward, except the edge ones wich were slightly closer together. The span over the cella was the largest in classical Greece. The cella housed the statue of Athena. Great sculptures covered the pediment, frieze, and metopes of the parthenon. Propylaea 437 BCE Mnesikles Athens, Greece Erectheion 420-410 BCE The site of this temple is thought to be where the fight between Athena and Poseidon occurred, and where the king who decided the winner is buried. The temple is Ionic. The east side had a portico leading to Athena’s sanctuary, and the west side had a 4 engaged columns. To the North was an extremely tall portico leading to the shrine for Poseidon (the elevation drops and the roof height remains the same so the columns are taller). The south, or Pantheon facing, wall has a small porch supported by 4 Caryatid maidens. The base of the porch was initially the foundation wall for and earlier temple destroyed by the Persians. Great Stupa 250 BCE-250 CE Sanchi, India Kandariya Mahadeva Temple 1025-1050 CE Khajuraho, India Brihadeshvara Temple 1050 CE Tanjore, India Angkor Wat 1120 CE Cambodia Sneferu's Pyramids 2575-2551 BCE One of the first king's of the 4th dynasty, Sneferu built 3 pyramids, that marked a progression in shape from the stepped pyramid to the ones at Giza. "Onion" Pyramid at Medium It began as a stepped core of seven stages, but Sneferu added an outer of stone. As the outermost layer of stone was being added, the tip collapsed under its own weight. "Bent" Pyramid at Dahshur Half built when the "onion" collapsed, the builders decided to change the angle of inclination in insure stability. It also had a strong limestone foundation and limestone core. The stabilizing designs from the "bent" pyramid were used from the beginning in this pyramid, named red for the oxidation of the limestone at its core. "Red" Pyramid at Dahshur Khufu's Pyramid KING Khufu made the first and largest pyramid at Giza, having a 13 acre base and reaching 481 feet tall. It had three chambers, one in the bedrock to represent the underworld, one in the middle as the serdab, and the tallest was the burial or king's chamber. The chamber is lined in granite, and has 5 re leaving chambers above to distribute the weight of the pyramid. Khafre's Pyramid King Khafre, Khufu's son, built his pyramid slightly smaller, 471 feet tall. It has one central chamber for the body at ground level. Remains of the complex are best persevered here. He has a valley temple to receive the body from the river then a procession way to the mortuary at the base of the temple. King Menkaure built the smallest pyramid. His only reached 213 feet, and used 1/10th the stone of khufu's tomb. The pyramid was unfinished at his death. Menkaure's Pyramid Beni-Hasan tombs tomb of Mentuhotep circa 2000 BCE 2061-2010 BCE Small rock cut tombs in which minor nobles and court officials were buried. It had a small portico, that led to a hall. In the back room the body was placed. Combined the form of a temple with a tomb in a single complex. There were layers of square columns that led to a grand hall that led to a forest of columns, at the back of which was a small room for the body. The Middle Kingdom 2040-1640 BCE After local feudal lords upset the unity of Egypt in what was called the first intermeidate period, Egypt emerged into another phase of centralized government. The capital of Egypt was relocated to Thebes and the role of a king was downgraded. Tombs became smaller to attract less attention from thieves. Old Kingdom 2575-2150 BCE Royal tombs evolve from mastabas to pyramids, as kings become more important. Second Intermediate Period 1640-1540 BCE The Hyksos, Shepard kings from Asia, successfully invaded Egypt and ruled for about a hundred years. They brought new deities, the chariot, new weapons, and introduced metallurgy. The New Kingdom 1540-1079 BCE The king's of Egypt became pharaohs and the priesthood became increasingly powerful. columns were even faceted similar to the flutes of later doric columns. The temple was once full of gardens, statues, paintings, and reflecting pools. takeover of Mycenaeans c. 1200 BCE Nomadic people from the East took over the Mycenaeans through use of calvary and iron weapons. Several centuries passed without significant architecture as these cultures merged together (and mastered writing). Battle of Marathon 490 BCE Persians attempted an invasion of mainland Greece. The Greek city-states, or polis, unitied and defeated the Persians at the battle of Marathon Sacking of Athens 480 BCE The Persians attacked again and devastated the region around Athens, even destroying the acropolis. The Persians were defeated in 479 BCE ending the Persian threat to Greece. Classical Period 479-323 BCE A new mature phase of Greek Architecture following the invasions from Persia. 250 CE 500 CE 750 CE 1000 CE 1250 CE 1500 CE 1750 CE Etruscans settle in Northern Italy 1200 BCE After the fall of the Hittite power, peoples move from Asia Minor to northern Italy. They joined the native Italians, the Latins and Sabines. Etruscan civilization c. 1000 BCE Settling in northern Italy, the Etruscans borrowed arts of their culture, arhchitecture, and religion from all over the world. Their economy was based on agriculture and trade, and they had their own temple design loosely based on those of the Greeks. It had a tripartite cella, fronted by a double row of 4 (terastyle) simplified Doric columns (Truscan order) set farther apart than Greek columns. It was set upon a high podium, with on stair from the front being the only way to ascend. They often faced south and had a wooden gable roof, with terracotta roof tiles and a large overhang. Walls were made of unbaked brick and terracotta was used for ornamentation. None of these temples survive today. Arch of Augustus c. 310 BCE An monumental arch at Perugia, Italy was built after this Etruscan city was taken by the Romans. It displays Etruscan influences. A double layer of wedge stones form the arch, which supports a decorative motif of metopes (circular shields) and triglyphs (mini pilasters). Above these is a relieving arch, flanked by two ionic pilasters. It symbolizes early indications of structural innovations. Founding of Rome 753 BCE Established by Romulus and Remus, Rome was ruled from 616 to 510 BCE by members of the Etruscan royal house, the Tarquins. It was made possible by the draining of marshes along the Tiber river, by the digging of a trench.This trench became the major sewer for Rome (Cloaca Maxima). Latin Rome c. 500 BCE The Latins overthrew the Tarquins at Rome and established the Roman Republic. By 88 BCE Roman forces incorporated all Etruscan settlements into the Republic Eruption of Vesuvius 79 CE Pompeii, a Greek settlement that had been taken over by Romans was buried under ash from the eruption of this volcano. It created one of the best preserved examples of a Roman provincial town. Pont du Guard 20 BCE The Pont du Guard is one of the largest surviving aqueduct spans. It has three tiers of arches, the bottom two have 60’ dia semicircles and the top tier has 20’ dia semicircles. It is made of unmortared stones, except the duct is mortared to be waterproof. The entire span is 882 feet long and 160 feet tall. The lowest tier also supports a road. The elevation of the aqueduct drops 2.5 cm across Pont du Guard, and falls 17 meters along its entire course. Temple of Portunus c.100 BCE This temple lies in Rome and was dedicated to the God of Port. It was a late Republic building and a fusion of Etruscan and Greek styles. Etruscan elements included the frontal stair, invoking the idea of discipline. Greek elements are seen in the ionic columns which are pseudoperipteral (columns all around but some are engaged and therefore decorative). This temple might have been multifunctional and housed civic/senate meetings, the treasury, and the office of weights and measures. Forum of Augustus 20-2 BCE The primary building of this forum was the Temple of Mars Ultor "Mars the Avenger" (Mars was the Roman God of War). Augustus wanted this to be built to commemorate his victory over the assassinators of Caesar. Money from the victory funded the building of the forum. The forum was a new expression of Roman classicism and enhanced the prestige of Rome. The temple was backed by a 2 ft thick concrete wall to protect the forum against the fire-prone residential neighborhood behind. The temple was octastyle peripteral sine postico (meaning it had eight all around columns Forum of Trajan 112 CE
The courtyard was entered through a monumental gateway. The courtyard was 330 by 375 feet, surrounded by double colonnades and semicircular elements. In the middle of the court was an equestrian statue of Trajan.

The courtyard led to the basilica Ulpia. This basilica was paid for by Trajan and Ulpia is Trajan's family name. This was the first basilica in a forum and the largest in ancient Rome (385 x 182 feet). It was a conservative post and lintel design, having a main nave aisle flanked by 2 barrel vaulted aisles. The second floor colonnade was open to the exterior and the roof was coffered. Entrance to the Basilica was on the long side. The basilica was used for administration and courts.

The column of Trajan is flanked by two libraries (one Greek and one Latin), a temple to Trajan (added later by Hadrian), and the Basilica, all of which afforded views of the column. The column was a typical victory monument with a spiraling narrative relief illustrating Trajan's victories over the Dacians (spoils from this paid for the forum). There are 155 scenes of the two campaigns, which get bigger as they go up. Trajan s in every scene. The column is Truscan order (Roman Doric) with a statue of Trajan at the top (now St. Peter). The column is 100 Roman feet tall (125 including the capitol and base), which marked the height of the hill removed for the Forum. There is a spiral stair inside leading to a viewing platform. The column was constructed of drums, and is one of the most imitated forms in the world. Apollodorus of Damascus Markets of Trajan 112 CE Apollodorus of Damascus The markets of Trajan hugged one of the Trajan forum’s marble hemicycles. It was 6 levels (built into the hill side in the form of a circle as a brace to hold back the dirt), with the top 4 levels being above ground, and had space for 150 shops and offices. There was a groin vaulted market hall on the interior upper level supported by piers- that separated the shops- and flying buttresses. The 6 groin vaults create a clerestory that allows light in. Double barrel vaults created the shops (taberna) and the walkways between them. Domus Aurea Flavian Amphitheater 70-81 CE 64-68 CE Better known as the Colosseum, the Flavian Amphitheater was a public work commissioned be Vespasian on the site of Nero's Golden House (its lake). Arena means sand (which soaks up blood) in Latin, therefore it was a place to hold games, which were previously held in roman forums. Amphitheater means theater in the round or two theaters put together.
When it was opened, Titus held 100 days of games as
celebration, in which 9,000 animals and gladiators were
killed. The Hypogeum (underground rooms and cages)
was added 10 years after it was opened. The structure
was based on the Theater of Marcellus and was rumored
to hold 50,000 people. The exterior oval measures 510 by 615 feet and was made of stone and concrete, with travertine cladding. It was made up of framed arches (fornix) with engaged columns in between. The order of columns changed at each level going from Truscan, to ionic, then Corinthian, ending with Corinthian pilasters at the top. It was believed that the each arch housed a statue. There were 80 entrances with the ones on the axises being most important and reserved for senators, the emperor, and gladiators. Each gate was numbered and corresponded to a tessera or ticket. There were five different seating levels called cavea, and seating was by order of class. There was an intricate network of supports, passageways, ramps and stairs to provide for the people and structure. A velarium or awning could be unfolded to give shade. Called the "Golden House," the Domus Aurea was a massive country villa in the center of Rome. Land for the home of Nero was stolen from the public after a fire burned down large portions of Rome (64 CE). The building was the first major shift away from rectilinear rooms, and showed an explosion of interior space. An example would be the Octagon Hall. This was the most advanced architecture from its time. It was constructed from a single plan and had massive triangular piers to hold the weight of the structure. The room was purely aesthetic beauty and had no purpose. It was said that rose petals and perfumes came down from the banquet hall ceiling. The complex was buried after Nero's death. Pantheon 118-128 CE The Pantheon, a temple to all the Gods, is one of the most innovative buildings in history. Possibly designed by Haderian, the Pantheon is actually the third Pantheon on the site, and the inscription on the front of the building gives credit to Markus Gripa designer of the first Pantheon in 25 BCE. The Pantheon was the first Roman temple to be converted to a Catholic Church, which preserved its marble from reuse. The exterior was originally stuko or marble, and might have been painted to look like marble. It is one of the most copied designs in architecture (Jefferson's Rotunda UVA), but there are no references to it from the time.

The Pronaus is octastyle with monolithic red and grey granite from Egypt columns. The Corinthian columns were supposed to be 60 roman feet tall but something happened and now they are 48 roman feet. The roof originally was covered in Bronze, and the pronaus would have been fronted by a Roman forecourt. The temple faces north and visitors would not have been able to see the sides. Baths of Diocletian Basilica Nova Aula Palatina 298-306 BCE 307-315 CE 310 CE The Aula Palatina, or "Palace Hall" was the imperial seat or palace of the father of Constantine, Consatintius Chlorus. Its first use was law courts and then as a seat for the emperor, and later the seat for a priest. The structure was brick with vaulted windows and a coffered wooden roof. The main focus of the space is the main aisle and the throne. The basilica Nova was much more advanced than the baslicia Ulpia, becasue of the use of modern construction techniques. It measured 300 x 215 feet, and reached 200 feet high. The central nave space was created by groin valuts and the side aisles are barrel vaults. The entire ceiling had round coffering. The Baths of Diocletian were the largest of ancient Rome (encompassing an area of 50 acres). The entire complex could hold 3,000 people with spaces for exercise, bathing, reading, gardens, and art galleries. The baths were a social place open for all classes. It had a symmetrical progression of spaces from the outdoor pool to the cold pool, warm pool, and then hot pool. They were decorated with marble veneers, mosaics, and statues inside and out. Michelangelo converted the frigidarium to a church, and one of the corner rotundas was also converted. Old St.Peter's Basilica 319 CE The church of old Saint Peter began as a maryrium to mark the burial place of Saint Peter, founder of the Christian church in Rome. It was built on top of a Roman necropolis and over Nero's circus (where Saint Peter may have been crucified). It was a literal interpretation of the Bible which says "over this rock I will build my church." The church has a main nave (300 by 64 feet) with 2 aisles separated by colonnades on each side. There is a transept that crosses in front of the apse, where people venerating the shrine would stand. The crossing of thesetwo spaces marks the tomb of Saint Peter, which is surrounded by a railing and marked by a canopy, which is held up by spiral columns rumored to be from the Temple of Solomon in Jerusalem. Under the canopy is the altar. During the service only the clergy was allowed in the nave, with laity confined to the aisles, which were likely draped with curtains. The church originally had a spacious atrium. Santa Costanza c. 350 CE The Santa Costanza was originally the mausoleum of Constantine's daughter, Constantia, and as part of a larger structure for Saint Agneus (who cured Constantia). It is a circular structure centered around her sarcophagus, now an alter. It has an encircling ambulatory space, separated by double columns, which also hold up the clerestory Sant' Apollonaro Nuovo c. 490 CE The church of Saint Apollonaro Nuovo was built for the Ostrogothic King Theoderic, who occupied Italy at the time. It is a plain brick building on the exterior, but has golden mosaics on the interior. The plan has one nave with flanking aisles. Columns support a clerestory above the nave. There are mosaics on the clerestory in three tiers. The lowest shows female saints and male martyrs processing towards the alter, the next shows prophets, evangelists, and apostles between the windows, and the top shows scenes of the Passion story and the miracles of Christ. Baptistery of the Orthodox c. 458 CE The Baptistery of the Orthodox in Ravenna (c. 490) was a domed octagon that surrounded an octagonal marble font. The ceiling mosaic starts with a central scene of Christ’s baptism in the river Jordan encircled by 12 apostles and an outer ring of altars and empty thrones top the arches. It has a plain brick exterior, articulated by 8 arched windows and corbeled arches with pilaster strips. Augustus 27 BCE-14 CE Tiberius 14-37 CE Caligula 37-41 CE Claudius 41-54 CE Nero 54-68 CE Galba Otho 68-69 CE 69 CE Vitellius Vespasian 69 CE 69-79 CE Titus 79-81 CE Domitian 81-96 CE Nerva 96-98 CE Trajan 98-117 CE Hadrian 117-138 CE Maison Carree c.10 BCE A pseudoperipteral temple, later converted to a christian church. This temple was the biases for Thomas Jefferson's Virginia State Capitol in Richmond, 1785, which established the idem for all US government buildings. Once crowned, Augustus was considered ruler of the senate, military, and high priest. His family claimed they were decendant from the goddess Venus. He was the adopted son of Julis Caesar and put in place many reforms and a great building program. On his death bed he said: "I came to a city of bricks and left a city of marble." Augustus brought about the Pax Romana (Period of Peace) except for the back). The forum held many statues of Augustus, that presented him as Romulus, Mars, and Venus, and the pater patriae (or father's father). The forum was slightly asymetrical so it didn't have to take other people's land. Considered "evil," Nero killed his step-father Claudius. He had a revolutionary building program, that was mostly for private use. Nero was assassinated in 68 CE by his guard Flavian dyansty Year of 4 Emperors Julio-Claudian dynasty Nervan-Antonian dynasty Trajan was 2nd of the five great emperors. He was known for being militaristic and expanding the borders of Rome. He defeated the Dacians, which brought a lot of money to Rome. The senate said as a prayer to later emperors: "May he be luckier than Augustus and better than Trajan." The forum of Trajan was the last of the Imperial Fora and bigger than all the other forums put together. Land for the forum was cut out of a ridge. The entire complex was covered with statues of Trajan, Dacian prisoners, and great Romans. It was made of three major parts: The first emperor to adopt the Greek beard, Harian was the 3rd Great Roman Emperor. He was a amateur architect and the embodiment of a virtuous emperor. He traveled extensively and wanted to consolidate the empire, not expand. He built himself a country villa that had aspects from all over the Roman Empire. The Rotunda may have been based on the Octagon suite of Nero and other Greek round temples. It is a sphere inscribed within a square, forming a drum shape with a half sphere on top. The dome is held up by eight massive piers, between which are barrel vaulted voids with Corinthian columns and relieving arches to distribute the load of the dome to the piers. To help with the load the walls decrease in thickness and densitiy of concrete as it goes up. Five tiers of coffers lighten the dome, and are larger stepped at the bottom to correct the perspective from ground level. This is the world's largest unreinforced dome. The floor is convex so water drains to the sides. The voids align with the floor and coffers at the cardinal directions. The cella is 142.6ft in diameter and height. The attic level has rectangular openings meant to resemble windows Theater of Marcellus 13-11 BCE An early theater was the Theater of Marcellus (13-11 BCE) in Rome. It was a semicircle of 11,000 seats rising in three tiers in front of a rectangular stage. Stacked radial barrel vaults provided for entrances and exits, while concentric rings of barrel vaults provided internal circulation. Engaged half columns between arches form the exterior façade, with the lower level being a doric entablature and the upper level being ionic. Constantine 306-337 CE Justinian 527-565 CE San Vitale 526-547 CE Hagia Sophia 532-537 CE Edict of Milan 313 CE Constantine proclaims tolerance for all religions in the Edict of Milan. This allows Christians to build there own religious structures. Diocletian 284-305 CE Roman Tetra-archy Diocletian split the empire into 2 parts East and West Roman Empire. They each had two capitols, where either a Caesar (junior emperor) or Augustus (senior emperor) would sit. This ended after Diocletian stepped down and there was a vacuum of power. 284-305 CE Constantine became sole emperor of the Roman Empire after the Battle at Milvian Bridge, where he defeated Maxentius in 306. Before this battle he dreamed that the Christian God came to him and told him that he would win if he fought under the cross. He later issued the Edict of Milan and eventually made Christianity the sole religion of the Roman Empire. Constantine built 7 major churches on the outskirts of Rome (so that they would compete with Pagan temples), that stood on sites associated with Christian martyrs. and roof. The aisle is barrel vaulted and finished with mosaics showing pagan motifs combined with christian imagery. The clerestory is defined by 12 arched windows. Below the mausoleum is a crypt, and the main space is proceeded by a narthex. Justinian was considered evil and cruel but initiated a great church building program and appreciation of the arts. His rule marks the being of the Byzantine empire. He reclaimed Northern Africa and Italy that had fallen into the hands of heretical rulers. He started the Golden Age of Byzantium, a period of political, cultural, and economic height. The church of San Vitale was started by the Ostrogoths but finished by Justinian when he retook Ravenna in 540 CE. It is an early christian Martyrium with an octagon plan. The central nave space is separated from the vaulted ambulatory, but their are semicircular niches that cut into the aisles and galleries creating a more cohesive space. Light comes from the exterior walls and the clerestory windows above. The alter is removed from the center and placed in the back, off center from the narthex. The exterior reflects the space
of the interior with a red-tile roof, and arched window between pilasters set into a brick wall. The lower walls have book-matched marble and the upper walls, floors, arch soffits, and apse are covered in mosaics. The apse has two panels set in the sides; one shows Justinian and his court and the other shows Theodora and her attendants. The apse semidome has Christ flanked by angles with St. Vitalis to his right and Bishop Ecclesius to his left. Anthemius of Tralles & Isodorus of Miletus The Hagia Sophia (meaning holy wisdom) creates both a centralized and logitudinal space, by using a main dome and then two half domes at the front and rear (all having a 107ft diameter). The entire main space is 250 feet long and the dome rises 180 feet above the floor. It was said that the dome was "suspended from heaven by a golden chain." In reality it was held up by pendentives and four massive piers that were buttressed. At the base of the dome was 40 windows, between which were buttresses that held the dome to the pendentives. There are aisles and galleries on either side of the main space, which is fronted by a atrium (no longer there) and a groin-vaulted double narthex. The many curved forms reflect and complement the dome giving the entire structure a overall harmony. During rituals the nave was for the ecclesiastics and the retinue of the emperor, the clergy stood in front of the apse and the imperial court stood in the narthex. This was the third church on the site, the first burned down and the second was torn down in the Nika Revolts. Dome of The Rock 687-692 CE Great Mosque, Damascus 706-715 CE Palatine Chapel 792-805 CE Great Mosque, Cordoba 784-988 CE Alhambra 1354-1391 CE Suleymaniye 1550-1558 CE Buland Darwaza c. 1568-1571 CE Diwan-i-khas 1568-1571 CE Masjid-i-Shah 1611-1630 CE Monastery of St. Gall St. Micheal's 1001-1031 CE St. Sernin Cluny III 1050 CE 1070-1120 CE Last Judgment Tympanum Fontenay Abbey 1132 CE 1139-1147 CE Islam started 610 CE The Dome of the Rock was built on Mount Moriah (over the site where Abraham prepared to sacrifice his son, the location of the Temple of Solomon, and where Mohammed ascended to Paradise), which has significance for Jews, Muslims, and Christians. It is the 3rd holiest site in Islam. The dome is centered over a rock, under which is a small cave with a single opening. Its design is similar to that of a marteryum, because it has an octagon plan with a concentric aisle that permits circumambulation. The dome is inspired by Byzantine precedent, although the dome is a 67ft diameter double shell wooden dome with 32 ribs (versus the smooth round stone Byzantine domes). The dome is set upon a cornice and masonry drum. The inside is plastered and painted or tiled showing the oldest Koran verses known written in Kufic script and textile inspired mosaics. The outside is sheathed with boards and finished with lead and gold leaf. It has grilled windows. There is an emphasis on the site and 4 entrances at the cardinal directions. The oldest existing mosque stands on the site of a Roman temple and a Christian church, and actually uses some of the Roman walls. Four minarets were built on the roman foundations. Over half the space is an arcaded court with a domed fountain pavilion and octagon pavilion- which was originally used for the public treasury. The haram is a cross between a basilica and a hypostyle hall which faces Mecca. The haram is 525ft long and is divided into 3 sections by rows of columns, except for at the central transverse element. There is a wooden dome over the central nave of the transverse and 3 mihrabs in the prayer wall. The mosaics artists may have been Byzantine, and their tilings are meant to represent paradise or heaven. This mosque is columnar style which was added to many times to become the largest mosque in Spain. The arches that connect the columns allowed t reuse of Roman columns and the raising of space with the lower arch being horseshoe-shaped and the upper arch almost semicircular. The voussoirs are alternating white stone and red brick. The mihrab was richly ornamented with a forest of lobed and cusped arches, and was covered with a dome articulated by interlacing arches and bays to either side. The double arches and interlacing arches are without president and likely inspired later Baroque buildings. The cathedral of Cordaba was inserted into the Mosque after the Moors were expelled from Spain. This Mosque was not oriented towards Mecca, it was N-S. Alhambra meaning “red fort” is a royal citadel erected above the city of Grenada by the Nasrid dynasty (which governed the remaining Spanish Islamic territories). In 1492 it was recaptured from the “Barbarians” and was described as an “earthly paradise.” The complex was built over time and therefore has no overall plan, but is a courtyard based composition, with the courtyards being used for ceremonial spaces and audience halls. It was mostly constructed of red brick and housed several mosques, common house dwellings, craft workshops, the royal mint, public baths, a military garrison, and seven palace buildings. Notable are the Patio of Arrayanes (Myrtle Trees), the Comares tower, the Patio of Lions, the Hall of Abencerrajes, and the Hall of Two Sisters. The patio is divided into four parts by a shallow watercourse coming from the Lion fountain in the center; this Charbagh symbolizes the Qur’anic paradise. It is bounded by arcades resting on slender columns (stilted arches). A square pavilion on each short end is formed by clustered columns supporting detailed arcades. The Lions supporting the fountain are brought from a Jewish palace, and a representation of the animals supporting the bronze basin in the temple of Solomon. Sebka decorations mask the structure. This square room is just off the Court of Lions. It uses squenches to create a Muqarnas dome, which is an octagonal some set on squenches. The dome is suspended from wooden trusses, which creates the appearance of heavenly spheres. Stalactite decorations hide the structure, using 5,000 different prism shapes. Sinan used Hagia Sophia as an inspiration to create this complex of buildings in a unique version of Islamic architecture. The complex included a hospital, schools, a medical school, market, hospice, public baths, and a house for Sinan. It was built on a hill overlooking the harbor. The mosque had four minarets, an arcaded sahn, and a domed haram. The haram has a main dome and two half domes, and it uses smaller domes to make the space fit within a square. There is no upper gallery here, but the buttressing elements combine with the arches, vaults and domes to create a more cohesive and beautiful design inside and out. The dome is slightly smaller than Hagia Sophia’s. St. Etienne 1067 CE Durham Cathedral 1093 CE Notre Dame Cathedral 1163-1250 CE Chartes Cathedral 1194-1230 CE Sainte-Chapelle 1243-1248 CE Salisbury Cathedral 1220-1258 CE Lincoln Cathedral 1192-1280 CE 1322-1336 CE Ely Cathedral Gloucester Cathedral 1337 CE 1500-1514 CE 1446-1515 CE King's College Chapel St. Maclou Santa Maria del Fiore, Nave 1292 CE Arnolfo di Cambio and Francesco Talenti St. Denis, West front St. Denis, Choir 1137-1140 CE 1140-1144 CE Santa Maria del Fiore, Dome 1420-1436 CE Brunelleschi 1421-1428 CE San Lorenzo Brunelleschi Pazzi Chapel 1430-1433 CE Brunelleschi 1444 CE Medici Palace Michelozzo Palazzo Rucellai Alberti 1446-1451 CE San Francesco San Andrea 1450 CE 1472 CE Santa Maria presso San Satiro 1482-1492 CE Tempietto Laurentian Library New St. Peter's Basilica Villa Rotunda San Giorgio Maggiore Alberti Alberti Bramante Bramante Michelangelo Michelangelo Palladio Palladio 1566-1570 CE 1565 CE 1546 CE 1524 CE 1502 CE c.820 CE The cathedral of St. Denis was the first real Gothic architecture. The site had a long history. Constantine commissioned the original Carolingian basilica (the royal French Monastery) which stood over the site of Saint Denis' grave(patron saint of France). He was the first bishop of France and legend had it that he had his head cut off and then walked 6 miles preaching all the way, and finally died on the church site. The basilica was the resting place of all but 3 French kings, and housed the French regalia. Abbot Suger was an energetic, informed, and innovative patron of the arts. He was donated to the abbey of St. Denis at the age of 3, and was raised in the monastery school, with future King Louis VII of France, to become a monk. He wanted to rebuild the church for the greater glory of God and France, but first had to get the abbey's financial affairs in order and reform the religious practices of the monks. Suger got inspiration for his designs from travelers descriptions of Hagia Sophia, biblical descriptions of the temple of Solomon, and writings incorrectly attributed to St. Denis (which discussed the spiritual qualities of light).The church was expanded/rebuilt in 2 stages. The west front and the narthex were first, followed by the choir and radiating chapels.
The westwork is reminiscent of Norman architecture, and there was likely a Norman architect. It is harmonic, with the center being emphasized by a rose window. It was once twin towered, and has 3 sculptural doorways with tympana and jamb statues. The narthex is covered with simple rib vaults that rise from grouped piers over 3 aisles. The choir is the first true Gothic structure. It has 7 radiating chapels to accommodate pilgrims. Each chapel has two large stained glass windows and is covered with rib vaults that all rise to the same height. Slender butresses separate the chapels and reinforce the upper wall. The chapels form the apse (chevet). They are actually all one form. The openness is allowed by rib vaults over pointed arches that allow for windows and flow of people.

Abbot Suger thought light in churches "new light" had influence over worshippers and was the middle between earth and heaven. The beauty of light in this church inspired Gothic churches to be built wherever the king of France had political influence.

The foundations and crypt were constructed first. The walls were built with wooden centering. The ribs were constructed over wooden centering bay by bay. The ribs were constructed first out of voussoirs, then stone webbing was placed oon top to create the vault. The webbing was then covered in concrete mortar (which took months to dry). The Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris encompasses many centuries and styles of Gothic architecture (shows Early and High Gothic). It coincides with a rise in the worship of the Virgin Mary (Notre Dame meaning "Our Lady"). She had enormous popular appeal as a mother who suffered great sorrow and stood before Christ pleading for leniency on the erring human race. The Cathedral was constructed as the capitol of France moved to Paris in 1130.

The west front is more solid and military than its predecessors (Notre Dame at Loan). It has three entrance portals, each slightly different. Above these is the Gallery of the Kings (representing 28 Kings from the Old Testament). A rose window and flanking lancet windows are the backdrop for a sculpture of the Virgin and child with two angels. A second arcaded horizontal gallery completes a square configuration for the lower facade. The entire west front appears symmetrical from a distance but slight irregularities among individual elements can be seen upon closer examination. The towers are slightly different in width but have sculptures and crockets that are revealed when you climb the stairs within the towers. The details of the west front extend Christian teachings to those who cannot read.

The interior elevation was remolded from a 4 part to a 3 part interior to allow for more light in the thirteenth century. The addition of these windows necessitated more buttresses, which show a shift towards skeletalization of structures (exterior showing of support). High Gothic Early Gothic The Gothic style can be characterized by an emphasis on verticality, consisting of articulated but unified cells of space, and a sense of openness. The gothic architects expoited the pointed arch, rib vault, flying butress, tracery on larger windows, and piers composed of colonnetesor shafts bundled around a core. They used a skeletal structural system that transfers loads to the ground through discreet points. A period of increasingly refined artisitic and structural features, that followed the Early Gothic and transition period. The high Gothic style extended the clerestory and arcade levels instead of having a fourth level like the Early Gothics. The Chartes Cathedral was the first cathedral in the High Gothic style, having flying buttresses planned from the start, making galleries unnecessary. It is on a site with a long history. It was built on a site sacred to the Virgin Mary, and it was a Romanesque pilgrimage church. The church was home to a tunic believed to have been worn by Mary. The westwerk was damaged in a fire and rebuilt the same year to have 3 portals and 3 lancet windows depicting the infancy of Christ, the Passion story, and the genealogy of Christ. In 1194 a fire destroyed the entire basilica, but the tunic of Mary survived. This was seen as a sign that she wanted a larger church, and funds were quickly raised to rebuild.

The new cathedral used the surviving westwerk, foundation, and crypt. This can be seen in the horizontal stripe under the rose window. It had a double ambulatory and a transept that had 3 portals at both ends (finished later). The Romanesque apse with 3 chapels was transformed into Gothic choir by the insertion of 4 shallow chapels between the existing ones.

It was a overall unified plan with a sense of verticality. The arches were meant to be effortless as they were an extension of the wall shafts. The piers were alternating cylindrical and octagonal cores, with wall shafts that are either faceted or cylindrical respectively. The wall shafts are slender and undercut, and so appear to float free of the surfaces to which they are attached. The vaulting is quadriartite (over one bay). The interior elevation was split into 3 parts the nave arcade, the triforium passage, and the clerestory windows. The clerestory level section is equal in height to the arcade. The clerestory windows had plate tracery in a rose window above paired lancets.

There are over 200 stained glass windows showing intellectual programs of the Old and New testament. The royal portals show crowned figures in the jamb, and teachings of the school of Chartres in the typana. The transept portals have figures with increase naturalism. The Sainte-Chapelle was in the Rayonnant style (tercery with radiating lines). The chapel was built by Louis IX, as an addition to the royal palace meant to house the relics he purchased from Constantinople. These included the Crown of Thorns and a piece of the True Cross, which cost twice as much as the building. The chapel has two floors. The bottom is for house-hold servants. The upper chapel is a room where the walls have been reduced to piers, between which are massive stained glass windows. The rib vaulted ceiling is supported by exterior buttresses and iron chains that encircle the building horizontally (concealed in the masonry and within the windows. The structure is a "jeweled box" that exemplifies the Rayonnant style. St. Maclou is in the Flamboyant style, the last style of French Gothic. It has a curved facade made of 5 portals (2 of which are fake). It has an articulation of widow spaces with stone tracery that is flame-like. Battle of Hastings Normans conquer England. The French continued to rule England for a hundred years, during which English architecture was strongly influenced by French styles. When the English won back their crown, they developed their own Gothic style. The English also tended to add on to old buildings versus building new ones like the French. This resulted in a juxtaposition of many styles under one roof. 1066 CE The Salisbury Cathedral is a rare example of a English church built in mostly one style. The Cathedral was a new construction because the town was relocated for more reliable water sources; it is a few miles from Stonehenge. This is where the Magna Carta was signed.

It is late Early Gothic characterized by the sparing use of flying buttresses (versus the French High Gothic that is at the same time) and an overall more solid structure. This building celebrates structural integrity and is a more conservative design. The veriticality of the exterior is in the crossing tower (added later) versus the French twin west front towers. The Cathedral incorporates features from monastic plans, including the double transepts of Cluny III and the square east end of the Cistercians. Salisbury is almost the same height as Chartres, but appears shorter because of the emphasis on the horizontal. The Cathedral has an incredibly long nave. The continuous vertical lines of the French are replaced by a horizontal string course under both the triforium and clerestory windows. The ribs of the vaults spring from wall corbels at the base of the clerestory. Quadripartite vaults rise from a 3-story nave elevation. On the exterior the horizontal bands are repeated. The west end is a screen facade, meaning the facade is wider than the nave (compared to the harmonic facade of French and Norman churches). Perbeck Marble (has a green-grey tint) is used for pier clusters and trim, this is not real marble but can take a highly polished finish. The Lincoln Cathedral shows many Gothic styles but especially decorative. Only the lower portions of the west front remain from the original Norman church. The west front was built up horizontally and vertically to create a screen wall. The nave has a ridge rib that emphasizes the horizontal and tierceron vaults that create excitement- characteristic of the decorative style. The Angle choir, or retro choir, has "crazy vaults." The entire cathedral is ornamented with elaborate trim in the form of Purbeck marble shafts, stiff-leaf capitals, trefoils, ogee arches, and sculpted angles. These decorations celebrate walls while the French want to dissolve them. The Cathedral has a early English nave that shows Norman inspiration in a timber roof.

The first crossing tower collapsed in 1322 because the churches foundations were insufficient to support a masonry construction. A new lantern was constructed by William Hurley, the King's carpenter. The new design was made out of wood painted to resemble stone. It used eight giant oak posts as the vertical members of the octagon tower. These were supported on hammerbeams which were tied to masonry piers. These members are only visible from a side access stair that goes into the lantern. The octagonal lantern appears from the interior to be set on squenches that have an explosion of tiercerons. The design increases the usable space and light in the crossing. The Gloucester Cathedral is in the perpendicular style. It has perpendicular tracery and forms. The wall surface is a single plane. The ceiling uses fan vaults with lierne between tiercerons creating a kind of connect--the-dots pattern. There are 3 ridge ribs. The chapel at King's college in Cambridge is an example of late Gothic masonry construction. It shows similarities to Sainte-Chapelle through its dissolution of walls into pure decoration. The chapel has a smaller, simpler plan to reduce reverberation so that speech could be better understood. This shows the growing importance of the sermon. The chapel plan is rectangular, and an ornate organ atop the choir screen divides the space between the townspeople and the students. The large windows have Perpendicular tracery and the ceiling has majestic fan vaults. This chapel is contemporary with the High Renaissance in Italy, but is mostly a medieval building The Santa Maria del Fiore was directly behind the Romanesque Baptistry of St. John (c. 1059). The nave had a Gothic character with pointed arches and ribbed vaults atop piers. The work halted at the octagonal drum which was meant to be the base of a dome reaching nearly 150 feet on the diagonal. No one at the time knew how to construct such a dome without excessive buttresses so the ceiling was left open for nearly 130 years. Fillippo Brunelleschi was the first star architect of the Renaissance. He started out as a Goldsmith and entered into a competition to redesign the doors of the Baptistry of St. John. When he lost, he went to Rome and studied ancient Roman architecture with his friend Donatello. When he returned to Florence, he was hired to build the 109' diameter dome of the Santa Maria del Fiore.

Brunelleschi's design showed Gothic and Roman influence. The load of the arch was reduced by the use of a pointed arch and a double shell made from radial and concentric ribs (inspired be buildings like the Pantheon and Florentine medieval work like the nearby baptistery). The shells are made of eight sandstone ribs that rise from the corners of the octagonal drum. The ribs tapper from a 11x7' cross section to a apex ring beneath the cupola. Between the ribs is a pair of intermediate ribs. They are separated by 5 horizontal sandstone rings connected by tin-plated iron clamps (that he observed in roman buildings). Halfway up the dome, brick was substituted in a herring bone pattern instead of stone because brick is lighter. Encircling chains are hidden in the dome to help with support. At the base of the dome are 24 chestnut timbers that are banded together with straps and bolts into a continuous wooden tension ring to help resist outward thrust, to limited effect.

The temporary construction was reduced by a portable centering that supported concentric rings until they were completed and could act as stable compression rings. The rising masonry supported the scaffolding, which in turn supported more centering. He designed other great machines like the Great Hoist. San Lorenzo is a Latin cross church that is part of a large private parish. It is a more simple early Christian plan. There are individual privately owned chapels that are placed off the aisle. There is a columnar arcade, and the arches across the loggia begin with the columns and end on pilasters set between side aisle chapels. The entire structure strives to create perfect mathematical relationships and ratios. Corinthian capitols with impost blocks raise the arches to create a clerestory (Gothic would have used the pointed arch). The entire design is crisp, light and refreshing, and uses pietra serena.

The Old Sacristy is one of 2 sacristies that fill the awkward space left by transept chapels. It was commissioned by Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici as a tomb. The design of the Sacristy is a revival of Early Christian mausoleums (centrally planned). Its floor, walls, and pendendentives fit within the shape of a cube, which is capped with a hemispherical dome and oculus. Pilasters, entablature, and arches are in pietra serena. The space has a purity of measurements in sculpture and architecture. The Pazzi Chapel is the chapter/meeting house of the monastery of Santa Croce. The Pazzi pays careful attention to numerical ratios, the language, and local building practices. The plan was made from placing a circular dome over a square divided in to 3 bays, and then expanding on the square with one coffered barrel bay to each side (a squat transept) and one domed square bay in depth. All of the bays are defined by Corinthian pilasters supporting a continuous entablature with arches above, in grey pietra serena against white plaster. The portico has a dome with similar proportions. The Medici Palace was commissioned by Cosimo de' Medici. An earlier design by Brunelleschi was rejected for being to to flashy, The design reflects an awareness for traditional Florentine domestic design. It is a square planned courtyard with rooms off it en suite. The street elevation is tripartite and reaches 83 feet high. The tiers have graduated textures (rock-faced stone at street level to smooth ashlar on the third level below the cornice. The stone blocks have rustication. The street level has open arcades to facilitate business in the courtyard, and built in benches on the exterior point to its semi-public use. The cornice has a large overhang that also serves as shade. It is a classical based building that inverts the new Renaissance classical style for the exterior of the building. A stair from the courtyard leads to an upper floor and the piano noble, or major family rooms. Typical Romanesque windows with circles are used throughout. The Palazzo Rucellai is ordered by superimposed Doric and Corinthian orders. This was the first use of classical orders on a Renaissance domestic buildings. To keep the proper order proportions, the ground floor is raised on a plinth scored in diamond shapes that imitate the Roman opus reticulatum. Alberti thought of the column as purely ornament, so in this building the column shapes don't even rise out of the wall. Alberti was commissioned by the condottiero (mercenary and tyrant), Sigismondo Malatesta to redesign a medieval Tuscan hall church to serve as a memorial and grave for himself, his family, and the court scholars. At the time, the ancient Roman temples were thought of as Christian churches so the building was re clad in marble carved in the classical style. The sides had heavy rounded arches for the tombs of scholars and the front was as cross between the nearby Arch of Augustus and monumental temple fronts. The tombs of Malatesta and his wife were meant to be placed behind the two blind side front arches. Alberti's assistant updated the Gothic interior, but the broken pediment and dome were never completed. The Ganzaga family hired Alberti to design this church as a part of their headquarters. The facade is based on a temple/triumphal arch form and is harmonic. There are ornamental columns ensized into the wall. Monumental Corinthian columns stand on pedestals to hold up the barrel vaulted nave. Shorter Corinthians support the arch of the central portal and a entablature that runs throughout the building. The aisle is only private chapels directly off the the the nave, the walls between which support the barrel vaults of the nave. The chapels alternate between small and large sizes, and are carved out of the monumental walls. The barrel vault of the nave is reminiscent of the Trinity painting, and the church as a whole could be an interpretation of the Basilica Nova into Christian architecture. Bramante idealized centralized architecture. Because of a road behind the church, the church was a 3-sided greek cross plan (Bramante only remodeled this ninth century church). Bramante retained Truscan styles and may have used inspiration from the Florence Baptistry of St. John and other early Christmas churches. He had a barrel vaulted nave and transepts that intersect at the central crossing with a coffered dome set on pendentives concluded by an oculus. The plan was modular with a wide nave. To correct the plan, Bramante used a single point perspective in low relief to give the illusion of a choir, this tick of the eye is called a trompe I'oeil. The Tempietto. "little temple," was commissioned by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain as a monument over the spot where St. Peter may have been martyred. The Tempietto was meant to be positioned within a circular cloister, a perfect hermetic architectural environment. It was a synthesis of humanist views and Christian piety and used simple proportions to dictate measurements. It has a cubical based cella that is transformed to a 2-story cylinder on the exterior, and is topped with a hemispherical dome. The crypt maintains the spot of the crucifixion as a circle in the floor, and a oculus on the main level looks through to this spot. The interior cylinder is surrounded by a 1-story colonnade with entablature and balustrade. The door is tucked within one of the 16 repetitive column bays. This is the first modern building to have a proper doric order and frieze. The metope panels have symbols that relate the authority of the Pope and antiquity. Keys, chalice, paton, gospels, incense boat, and tabernacle are all symbols of St. Peter and the Pope. St. Peter's square, San Pietro Basilica 1506-1656 CE Bramante, Michelangelo, della Porta Vignola, Maderna, Bernini Basilica
The basilica of St. Peter's achieves magnificence and drama through its shear size (as high as a 9 story building). The Dome was left unfinished for 25 years after Michelangelo's death, and was finally finished in 1612. The dome represents the final motivation of the entire square in a vertical axis towards the heavens. It is a double shell dome, which allows visitors to go to the top. On the floor under the dome is the reason for the church, St. Peter's tomb. The nave addition and front facade (slightly off center to align with the obelisk) was completed by Carlo Maderno. Bernini designed most of the interior work, the floors in the nave and narthex, the decoration of the nave piers, sculptures for 4 tombs, the Baldacchino, the and the Cathedra Petri.

The Baldacchino is the protective canopy over the alter above the tomb of St. Peter. It is 90 feet high, and uses columns that are enlarged versions of the marble columns from the Constantinian basilica brought from the temple of Solomon. Bronze for the Baldacchino was taken from the portico of the Pantheon.

The Cathedra Petri, of Chair of Peter, is an elaborate bronze reliquary for the wooden seat of the first apostle. The chair is supported over the visitors heads by 4 Doctors, backed against golden rays emanating from a tained-glass window, showing the theatricality of the Baroque.

Piazza
The Piazza Retta has a trapezoidal section, which attempts in two ways to change the appearance of the facade, which appeared too horizontal to the Baroque eye. The trapezoid "squeezes" the facade and makes it appear taller because the flanking colonnade that diminishes in height towards the church.

The Piazza Obliqua focuses on a obelisk, and is a square shape with two semicircles attached. Two fountains and the obelisk establish a cross axis and give the design tension. The sides of the piazza are created by freestanding Truscan order colonnades 39ft high, arranged 4 deep on radial lines. They produce a constantly shifting play of light and shadow and an enclosure without confinement, connecting the Vatican to the city and world beyond (the shape also does this).

The combined space is a "meeting place of all mankind," which holds 250,000 people, and at the same time it sends out its message to the world. It is an ideal synthesis of concentration and longitudinal direction towards a goal. The obelisk becomes a node to which all directions are connected.

A direct route to the basilica was not achieved until the 1930's when Mussolini tore down the Via della Concilazione to provide a majestic axial approach to the church, but at the same time destroying the sudden moment of awe when walking out from the dark streets of Rome into the light of the church. San Andrea al Quirinale 1653-70 CE Bernini This small oval shaped church was designed as a quite retreat for Jesuit's. Entrance is made through a small convex plaza created by countercurves from the entrance that turn into convex enveloping arms that connect the building to the street, blurring where the real entrance is. Then a visitor passes between giant-order Corinthian pilasters supporting a pediment, and climbs a radiating flight of stairs into a convex curving portico that appears as though folded down from a semi-circular window directly above it, which is supported by ionic columns. The shape of of the interior is clearly expressed on the exterior, with scroll-like buttresses supporting the dome. Space has a new importance as columns are separated from the surface of the facade.

The interior is shorter on the main axis than on the secondary, begging the question which is the main axis and confusing visitors as to which direction they should walk. The elliptical plan is much smaller than others of the time and has a reliance on walls and materials, versus later Baroque works. The building creates dramatic light through hidden windows and relies on painting, sculpture, and stucco work to increase theatricality. Figures literally appear to be "holding up" heaven. Pilasters not chapels on the long axis force focus back to the shirt axis. The coffered dome includes 10 ribs, diminishing in width as they rise to visually support the base of the lantern.San Giorgio MaggioreSan Giorgio MaggioreSan Giorgio Maggiore San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane Borromini 1638-1667 CE This small church was built at the corner of two major Roman streets, a intersection marked by fountains on its four corners. Borromini first renovated the monks living quarters, including the cloister, refractory, and a courtyard. The plan for the church is an undulating oval, its long axis leading to a main alter, while bulges create a secondary axis that is marked by shallow side chapels. The curving side walls evoke the spirit of a stretched Greek-cross plan, while decreasing the importance of the alter. The design was based on basic geometric shapes- showing a connection to Gothic architecture, versus the mathematical ratios of the Renaissance. The entire interior emphasizes a spatial integration of walls, floor, and ceiling. It becomes impossible to identify individual parts because the entire space was conceived as a whole from the beginning. Rows of columns become rhythmically spaced and all corners are removed. The columns are pressed into the surrounding walls and pendentives make the dome an oval shape. The dome is coffered with octagons, hexagons, and Trinitarian crosses that reach toward a oval oculus. Here Borromini stops relying on a variety of materials. The entire effect is of a spatial drama, where the space itself is the maker of architecture- the first time this has ever happened. The facade mirrors the interior with 3 alternating concave-convex panels. The two stories are separated by an intermediate oscillating entablature and topped by a balustrade broken by a large oval medallion. The fountain is skillfully incorporated into the facade at the corner. San Lorenzo 1670-1684 CE Guarino Guarini Guarini composed more sensual and dynamic plans that systematically worked out principles proposed by Borromini. His plans had interdependent or interpenetrating calls and produced energetic forms that resemble pulsating organisms, which give the Baroque ideas of extension and movement a new dynamic and vital interpretation. The plan of San Lorenzo is based on an octagon, defined by convex surfaces bulging into the main space, with a small elliptical choir. The dome is an open work structure with 8 interlacing ribs, with oval, pentagonal, and circular openings set between the ribs. Over the choir is a lower 6-pointed ribbed-star vault. The dome is reminiscent of Islamic ribbed domes in the Great Mosque of Cordoba. The spatial result of San Lorenzo is the possibility of extension. Columns are moved out to create layers of space. Gothic sensibilities can be seen in columns and skinny ribs of the dome. Chateau of Vaux-le-Vicomte 1657-1661 CE Louis Le Vau (architect), Charles Le Brun (interior designer, painter), Andre Le Notre (Landscape Designer) Castle and Garden of Belvedere 1714-1723 CE Johann Lukas Van Hilderbrandt Chapel at Simirce 1700-1713 CE Christoph Dientzenhofer Vierzehnheiligen 1743-1763 CE Balthasar Neumann Karlskirche 1716-1725 CE Johann Bernard Fischer von Erlach The Chateau was built for Nicholas Fouquet, who was finance minister to the King. It is defined by its garden, with streets and paths that extend infinitely, and go from more ordered to increasingly natural- showing a connection and transition to the outside world. The garden steps down to enhance the infinite feeling, and shallow pools reflect and connect the gardens with the sky, enhancing its grandeur. The complex is based on a longitudinal axis, which brings the observer to his/her goal, the palace (which is symmetrical over this axis). A long axial approach forces you to enjoy the building and its surroundings, leading you across a moat, to the paved terrace and through a triple arched entrance into the vestibule. The classical facade has medieval and Gothic references, in the sense that the facade appears as a skin stretched tightly over a structural skeleton (versus the plasticity of the italian baroque). Verticallity is expressed in windows, pilasters, the roof, and ornaments. The Chateau itself is a free standing block with pavilions at each corner; each area has a separate roof and importance in elevation. The middle room is open in all directions, connecting it to the gardens and courtyard beyond. The interior stucco, paintings, and tapestries present a never-wavering adherence to Classicism even in the Baroque epoch. At this Chapel, Guarini's ideas of spatial juxtaposition are combined with the central-european system of wall-pillars, in a plan inspired by San Lorenzo. The plan is an elongated octagon with internally convex sides. On the longitudinal axis secondary oval spaces are added, whereas the transverse axis is closed by neutral walls filled between slightly projecting pillars. The diagonals are extended by lens-shaped recesses. The space as a whole is treated as an open system where cells may be added at will, according to the principle of pulsating juxtaposition. The chapel is the first true "reduced central church," which is the answer to a desired synthesis of longitudinal and centralized systems. The reduction is made possible by the introduction of wall-pillars, which make the walls become neutral panels that may be added to or taken away at will. The exterior is enveloped in an undulating surface creating a structure with a rare organic unity with a convincing complementary relationship between interior and exterior. Late Baroque architecture of Austria was born after the Turks were defeated 1683, making Austria a leading power in Europe. Austrian palace architecture varied from the French mainly because of its strong medieval sensibility, the result was a variation on the Baroque themes of centralization and extension, without the Cartesian geometry found in Paris and Torino. Belvedere has a rising landscape with a view, so the complex is laid out in two parts- lower and upper. The result is the is the infinite perspective of Baroque gardens to be transformed into an enclosed space, creating an independent, intimate, private world. Meanwhile, the upper palace dominates the surrounding space like a medieval castle- a synthesis of local tradition, foreign importation, and the new 18th century approach to space. The volumetric integration and skin-like outer wall are characterized by neither French restraint nor italian plasticity, but it's an entirely new invention: the creation of a surface that seems alive, whose forms appear, disappear, and change like the characters in a fairy tale. Vierzehnheiligen has a restained exterior that appears to be a Latin-cross shape, but upon entering a different world is revealed. Within a seemingly infinite luminous space, a series of oval baldachins (canopies) are placed, and it is structured by a series of colossal columns and pilasters. The longitudinal axis is emphasized by a large main alter in the presbytery, but equally strong is the center, marked by the splendid Rococo alter of 14 saints. The center of the layout coincides with the center of the church, not the crossing where the vaulting is eroded by four interpenetrating spaces, resulting in a strong spatial syncopation.
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