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Transcript of RS Revision
By Qaasim Fojdar
There are three different types of contraception, they are:
Barrier methods- Artificial barriers that stop the sperm from meeting the egg. E.G: Condoms, Femidoms, the 'Diaphragm' (cap) and the IUD (coil)
Natural Methods- No artificial help needed, uses methods such as Withdrawal and the Rhythm method
Post-Fertilisation Methods-Ingested items like the 'morning-after pill' or hormonal pills that stop the egg from being released
There are two types of abortion, 'natural' and 'procured'. Natural abortions, also known as miscarriages, happen when the pregnancy ends in the first 12 weeks, by natural causes and with no assistance. 'Procured' abortions, also known as 'Terminations' occur when the baby is killed intentionally, and they can happen up to the 24th week.It is then illegal to kill the child, due to the 1967 Abortion act by David Steele, a prominent christian who decided to allow abortions simply because he did not want it to happen in the unsanitary conditions of illegal terminations, where many women died.
There are five different types of termination:
RU-486- where a hormone/drug is injected into the woman to stop the egg from attaching itself to the womb. This is the easiest method, and can be done very early on
Prostoglandin- Where a drug is injected into the woman to force labor, where the fetus is born but is usually too small to survive
Suction method- Where the fetus is sucked out of the womb at an early stage, usually the cleanest method, the only physical side effect being a heavy period
Saline abortion- where salt is injected into the womb, killing the fetus. The dead fetus is then removed by a natural labor
Dilation and Evacuation- The fetus is cut up in the womb and then removed in pieces by the doctor
Euthanasia and Suicide
There are 4 types of euthanasia:
Passive- Where medication is stopped and the person is left to die of their ailments, letting nature take its course
Active- Taking action to end a persons life, using a pill or an injection to end their life peacefully
Involuntary- Where the person is unable to make a decision on whether they should end their life or not, so the family members make that choice for them
Voluntary- Where the person makes the decision themselves if they want to die
Contraception literally means 'against conception', to stop a child from being created
The term 'abortion' means to end the pregnancy before the baby is able to survive on its own outside of the womb
'Euthanasia' literally means easy death, and means helping a person to die if they are in suffering. it is also known as mercy killing or assisted suicide
Animal testing is the use of animals instead of humans in scientific experiments
There are two christian views that can be put into practice here, Stewardship and Dominion. Stewardship is the belief that God gave the world to man, gave him control of it and he is supposed to take care of what God has given him. Dominion is the belief that God gave control of the world to man, and he can do what he wants with it, which is part of the Genesis story, where God told man to 'subdue' the earth.This means that man has control over all the animals, so it is ok to test on animals. In Matthew 6:26 it says' Are you not of more value than they?' when talking about the birds, which could mean two things. It could either mean that man is better than animals, as we have free will, so it is alright to test on them, or it could mean that we are the same as them, and they should be treated equally to humans, as it says 'yet your heavenly Father feeds them' in the same quote.
The other belief, Stewardship, is that God gave the world to man to take care of it, and by testing on animals, it is abusing what God gave man. Animal testing for medical reasons can create many animal casualties, and in Exodus 20:12 it says 'you shall not murder'. If humans are on the same level as animals, then animal testing could count as murder, and then it is a sin. Also, in Luke 12:6 it says 'and not one of them is forgotten before God' whilst talking about animals, which shows that everything is equal under the eyes of God, so animal testing should not be allowed, if we don't want it to happen to ourselves
copy and paste as needed to add notes to your brainstorm
Marriage and Relationships
'Marriage' is a legally binding bond between a man and a woman. A joining of two people of the same sex is called 'civil partnership'
Divorce and Re-Marriage
Divorce is the legal dissolution of a marriage, and Remarriage is the marriage that takes place after the ending of the first marriage, either through divorce or widowhood
Some churches, like the Roman Catholic Church, are completely against the idea of divorce, instead allowing 'annulments', meaning that the marriage was void from the beginning, but these annulments are only allowed under certain circumstances. Because divorce isn't allowed, neither is re-marriage. This is because they believe that the marriage Vows are unbreakable, and that even if the couple separates, they are still married under the eyes of God. Thus, if either of the divorcees re-marry, they are committing adultery, which is a sin, as one of the Ten commandments is 'you shall not commit adultery.' Another bible quote against divorce is in Mark 10:9 'Therefore what God has joined together, let man not separate', This goes against the 'Sanctity of Marriage', where only God can break apart what he has joined. Divorce also goes against the vows made by the couple during their vows in the presence of God, which is an insult to God. Also, in several gospels of the Bible, Divorce is forbidden. See next page
In Christian marriage ceremonies, God is said to be present, and this is reflected in the different stages of the ceremony.
Before the wedding, the couple must go through a marriage counseling session with the priest, to discuss any problems they could have in the future and how they would overcome them.
When the wedding ceremony begins, the priest reads out the virtues of christian marriage, and then the Declarations are read out. The Declarations are promises to love, honour, comfort and protect each other, made in the presence of everybody present at the wedding. then the vows are made, which are promises made in the presence of God.
I, ... , take you, ... , to be my wife, to have and to hold, from this day forward; for better, for worse, for richer, for poorer, in sickness and in health, to love and to cherish, till death us do part; according to God's holy law. In the presence of God I make this vow
The Christian vows
The main reasons why Christians marry are:
To fulfill God's will; Marriage is a gift from God
To create a loving atmosphere for family life
To have children
Mark 10:6-8 '... and the two will become one flesh. So they are no longer two, but one.
The first reason why christians get married is Biblical, where in Genesis2:8 God says 'It is not good that the man should be alone', meaning that God wants man to get married, as God ordained it in Eden.
The next reason is to have sex and make children. In Genesis 2:28 God says 'Be fruitful and increase in number, fill the earth'. This means that God wants us to have children
A third reason is to avoid 'fornication', the unlawful act of sex, including adultery and pre-marital sex. 'It is better to marry then to burn with passion' Corinthians 7:9
Roman catholic churches are completely against all types of artificial contraception, and whilst they allow natural methods, they advise against it. They believe in Natural law (Everything that happens is God's will and is how he wants it to be) and procreation. This means that they believe that the act of sex is to create children, if the timing is right. By using artificial barriers to prevent childbirth, you are subverting God's will, which is sin. They also believe it creates immorality in the act of sex, as it can be done outside of marriage, making it a sin as well as immoral. In Genesis 1:28 God says 'Fill the earth' and 'Be fruitful and multiply', so using contraception is against God's will. Natural methods of conception are only to be used in Natural family planning, if the couple wants to limit the amount of children they have
Other churches allow divorces, under certain circumstances, if the marriage is causing oppression, pain or to relieve a partner of unfaithfulness or desertion. They also allow co-habitation sometimes, but prefer the couple to be married. Re-marriage can be allowed.
Bible Quotes against Divorce
Deuteronomy 22:29 'He must not divorce her as long as he lives'
Corinthians 7:10-11 'A husband must not divorce his wife
Bible quotes for divorce
Matthew 19:8 '.. Moses allowed you to divorce your wives
God would not want you to suffer from an unhappy marriage, and as he is kind and forgiving, he could forgive you for the divorce. 'Your heavenly father would forgive you' Matthew 6:14
Other churches, such as protestant churches allow barrier methods as well as natural methods, if bringing a child into the world would lower its quality of life. However, both Roman Catholic and Protestant churches both agree that any form of post-fertilisation contraception is wrong and should completely be avoided, as Roman catholic churches believe that a human life is born at the moment of conception, and that using the 'pill' would destroy that life and thus violate the 'sanctity of life' which applies to all human life. One of the Ten commandments is 'Thou shalt not kill', and since the morning after pill destroys the fertilised egg, it is killing a human life, directly disobeying god's command.
Relationships and Contraception
Is Abortion allowed?
Roman catholic churches believe that a human life is born at the moment of
conception, and that any form of abortion is murder, and is against natural law.
Moreover, children are a gift from God, so abortion is killing God's gift and creation. As the embryo is seen as human life, abortion is murder, and goes against the commandment 'thou shalt not kill'.
The main argument against abortion is its violation of the sanctity of life. Sanctity of life is the belief that God created man 'in his own image', that life is a gift from God and should not be destroyed, and that all human life is bound together as 'temples' of the Holy Spirit. So, by terminating a pregnancy, you are not only destroying a temple of the Holy Spirit, you are destroying God's image. This is the underlying argument behind all aspects of contraception and abortions
However, other churches may allow abortions under special circumstances, such as if the fetus will not survive long because of a severe handicap.
What the Roman Catholic church does allow is the idea of Double Effect, where if the woman has an operation, but it will mean losing her child, then it is allowed. Double effect means that whilst the intention is morally right, a bad effect may come out of it, as long as it is unintentional
Suicide is the taking of one's own life, intentionally
Euthanasia and Suicide
There are a few arguments for and against euthanasia, with the roman catholic church being strictly against it. They believe that all life is sacred, and they believe in the sanctity of life, so they think that euthanasia is wrong. They see it as destroying God's work, and destroying a temple f the Holy Spirit, as they believe that a bit of God is in everyone, and deliberately killing it is sin.They also believe that everything has a purpose that was given by God, even suffering. If that is God's will, who are we to subvert it? Some would argue that terminal illnesses are part of natural law. A main quote against euthanasia is 'Thou shalt not kill' meaning you are not allowed to take a life, even your own.
The other christian churches believe the same things, but there are arguments for euthanasia as well. Some may argue that God would not want us to suffer, so euthanasia is doing God's will. Another argument is that when God created man, he told him to 'rule over everything' allowing to have control over his own life, so he can take it if he wants to. Also, when God created man, he gave him free will, allowing him to do whatever he thinks is right, even taking his own life. In Matthew 22:39 it says 'Love thy neighbour as thy love thyself' meaning that if your love your neighbour, then isn't it better to let him die rather than live in pain.
Suicide has the same arguments as euthanasia, where killing yourself violates the sanctity of life but is an end to suffering. however, the Roman catholic church sees it a pre-meditative murder, and is a one way ticket to hell
Fertility treatment is the name given to any procedure that allows a couple to have a child when they could not naturally do so before
There are a few types of fertility treatment, such as:
Fertility drugs-increasing the fertility of the user
AIH-Artificial insemination by husband- sperm donation by husband
AID-Artificial insemination by donor-sperm donation by donor
Surrogacy-Another woman carries your child
IVF-In vitro fertilisation- Taking the egg out and fertilising it in a lab, where it can be then placed into the womb
The roman catholic church disagrees with all the methods of fertility treatment, as they see childbirth as a gift from god for marriage. They see AID, AIH and IVF as adultery, as a third party is involved each time, and one of the ten commandments is 'you shall not commit adultery'. Also, these procedures could be described as 'playing God', as a human person is responsible for creating the life, not God, and this is a grave sin. Another reason why they don't allow it is because it is interfering with natural law, and interferes with God's will, as some people are infertile for a reason. Other churches allow some fertility treatments, as it is creating human life for people who could not have it previously, and God wanted humans to 'fill the earth', and fertility treatments are helping to do that. In the Ecclesiastes Gospel, it say there is a 'time to be born ad a time to die', so that it is not humanity's place to choose the method of fertilisation.
'He gives the barren woman a home, making her the joyous mother of children.'Psalms113:9- this shows Natural law, as God made people infertile to take care of the orphans, and by using fertility treatments, they are turning their backs on the place God gave them
Religion and Justice
There are a few christian attitudes to war, where some christians agree it, some believe that it is a necessary evil, and some believe that it is completely wrong.
First, there is the belief of 'Holy war', where the war is just because God wants it ('Prepare for war' Joel 3:9)
Then there is the belief of 'Just war', where the war is carried out for good reasons, following Thomas Aquinas' guidelines for Just war. The guidelines are :
'Just cause', For good/Against evil, Ordered by a ruler/authority, Last resort, Outcome of good higher than evil caused by the war/evil before the war.
Quotes for war/violence: 'overturned their tables' (Matthew), 'release the oppressed' (Luke), 'eye for an eye', 'a time for war, a time for peace' (Ecclesiastes)
Quotes against war/violence: 'Blessed are the peacemakers', 'strikes you on the right cheek, turn to him the other also', 'love your enemies', Sanctity of life (Temples of the holy spirit, ''breath of life"), 'thou shalt not kill' (Commandment), 'all who draw the sword will die by the sword' (Matthew), 'beat their swords into plowshares' (Isaiah)
Quakers are completely against violence/war, provide alternatives to war such as: speeches, petitions, marches, boycotts etc.
Holy war-War on behalf of God
Just war- A fair or right war
Crime and Punishment
Main aims of punishment-
Deterrence-stop re-offending, stop others
Authority-show authority, command respect
Protection-Protect the public, prevent crimes from affecting the community
Retribution-Revenge on a criminal for their crime through punishment
Vindication(Even the score)-Retaliate against the crime, payback
Reform-change the criminal, less likely to re-offend
Most christians would be more inclined to choose the options of Reform, Protection and Reparation, as they are benefiting society as well as changing the criminal, without violating the 'Sanctity of life'. They would be less inclined to be vindicative, as that damages everybody, but it provides justice for the family of the victim/s. Some christians may not believe in punishing the criminal at all, with exception of prison for protection, as you should not 'judge, or you too will be judged'
Crime and punishment
Some christians believe in forgiveness, because Jesus forgave people, even during his crucifixion 'Father, Forgive them' and the Bible says 'be merciful... forgive, and you will be forgiven' although they believe that forgiveness doesn't excuse the crime, punishment is still needed, and the punishment should fit the crime, 'eye for eye, tooth for tooth'. Fair treatment is necessary because of Sanctity of life, as you should 'love your enemies'. Also, Roman Catholics believe in punishing the criminal, as the Romans gospel describes man as being an 'agent of wrath to bring punishment on the wrongdoer.
For Capital punishment- 'eye for eye', 'by man shall his blood be shed' (Genesis), ' bring punishment on the wrongdoer' (Romans), Leviticus 24:17 'Whoever takes a human life shall surely be put to death'
Against Capital punishment- 'forgive others their trespasses' (Matthew), 'leave it to the wrath of God', (Romans), 'him who is without sin amongst you' (John)'sanctity of life (breath of life)' (Genesis), 'be merciful... forgive and you will be forgiven' (Luke), 'blessed are the merciful' (Matthew) 'love your enemies' (Matthew), 'judge and you too will be judged' (Matthew), 'overcome evil by good' (Romans)
Social injustice is unfairness in society, where some people have fewer rights, opportunities or rewards, possibly due to discrimination based upon age, race, sex and disability
Christians believe in acting against social injustice in different ways, such as:
Prayer-Ask God for guidance or a solution to the problems
Treating people fairly- giving everybody equal chances, without discrimination
Volunteering-Helping the less fortunate, such as the homeless or orphans
Campaigning- speaking out against unfairness in society
Supporting organisations such as Christians Against Poverty
And following Liberation theology- Where Christians have an obligation or responsibility to fight against poverty and oppression, and to take action to protect people's human rights
They are against racial inequality, 'love him as yourself('Alien living with you')
The justice system should be fair, 'Hate evil, love good: maintain justice in courts' Amos 5:15
Story of Jesus feeding the 5000
'Love your neighbour' help the homeless, make society fair
'have you not discriminated amongst yourselves and become judges with evil thoughts'