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Theories on the Origin or sources Values

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Hannah Mendoza

on 7 September 2013

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Transcript of Theories on the Origin or sources Values

Theories on the Origin
or Sources of Values

Id, Ego & Superego Theory of Values and Preferences
There are four general theories on the origin of values:
"Inner Man"
( Mentalistic Theory of Values )


"Outer man"
( Behavioral Theory of Values )
Labeling Theory
( Cultural Relativism of Values )
William James
The "Inner Man" or
Mentalistic Theory of Values

conti. mentalistic theory of values
According to William James, all our obligations, all of what we call good and what we call bad, do not exist as good and bad per se.
Values is purely the product of each
Heart
Mind
The "Outer Man" or
Behavioral Theory of Values
conti. of behavioral theory of values
B. F. Skinner
Skinner posits that values come from your personal experience. You get punished or rewarded for things you did, and that reinforcement is what determines what you’ll deem good and bad.
Values are created by never ending stories of a combination of behavioral reinforcements and extinction.
The Labeling Theory or
Cultural Relativism Theory of Values
conti. of labeling theory
Values would be relative from culture to culture, from one society to another.
According to this theory, things, ideas, events, behavior, are neither good nor bad per se. It is society which labels them as either good or bad.
Howard S. Becker
Id, Ego, Superego Theory of Values and Preferences
conti. of id, ego, superego theory of values
Sigmund Freud
SUPEREGO based drives – that spend a good amount of time in a tension – producing conflict between what we value and what we prefer.
ID – based dives to prefer certain things; we develop over time a consciousness of ways to interact with our external world to get what we want.
EGO based drives - a set of culturally and parentally induced should and should not
Freud posits that we have evolutionary-based instinctual drives: ID, Ego, Superego
They are OUR constructions and are for each of us but a product of each individual’s wants, needs and desires.
conti. mentalistic theory of values
Values is purely the product of each
Heart
Mind
Exapmle:
A person that values his/her own family
product
Example
Obeying the elders are values learned through awards and punishments.
Bad things (Disobedience) equals to punishments.
Good things (Obedience) equals to awards
Example
Same Sex Marriage & RH Bill can be either good or bad according to the opinion of the society.
Extra Marital Affairs
Respect for elders
love
money
career/ success
Full transcript