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8.08 Book III
Transcript of 8.08 Book III
Jessica Kastello | WVS Latin I
from Troy to Rome
The Voyage of Aeneas
Troy is a city famous in both history and legend. It is located in northwest Anatolia in what is now Turkey and is south of the Dardanelles and northwest of Mount Ida at Hisaronu. It is best known for being the setting of the Trojan War described in the Greek Epics and especially in the
, one of the two epic poems attributed to Homer. A new capital called Ilium was founded on the site in the reign of the Roman Emperor Augustus. It flourished until the establishment of Constantinople and declined gradually during the Byzantine era.
In 1865, English archaeologist Frank Calvert excavated trial trenches in a field he had bought from a local farmer at Hisarlık, and in 1868, Heinrich Schliemann, a wealthy German businessman and archaeologist, also began excavating in the area after a chance meeting with Calvert. These excavations revealed several cities built in succession.
Thrace is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe, centered on the modern borders of Bulgaria, Greece, and Turkey.
Ancient Greek mythology provides them with a mythical ancestor, Thrax, son of the war-god Ares, who was said to reside in Thrace. The Thracians appear in Homer's
as Trojan allies.
Born in Thrace, Spartacus was a soldier in the Roman army who deserted but was captured and then enslaved by the Romans. He led a large slave uprising in what is now Italy in 73–71 BC. His army of escaped gladiators and slaves defeated several Roman legions in what is known as the Third Servile War.
The island of Delos is one of the most important mythological, historical, and archaeological sites in Greece. Investigation of ancient stone huts found on the island indicate that it has been inhabited since the 3rd millennium BC. The excavations in the island are among the most extensive in the Mediterranean.
Delos had a position as a holy sanctuary for a millennium before Olympian Greek mythology made it the birthplace of Apollo and Artemis. From its Sacred Harbour, the horizon shows the two conical mounds that have identified landscapes sacred to a goddess in other sites: one, retaining its pre-Greek name Mount Kynthos, is crowned with a sanctuary of Zeus.
Delos had an importance that its natural resources could never have offered; this island is the place Leto was accepted in her search for a birthing-place for Artemis and Apollo.
The Terrace of the Lions, dedicated to Apollo by the people of Naxos shortly before 600 BC, originally had twelve squatting, snarling marble guardian lions along the Sacred Way. The lions create a monumental avenue comparable to Egyptian avenues of sphinxes. Today only seven of the original lions remain.
Crete is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, and the fifth-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. Crete forms a significant part of the economy and cultural heritage of Greece, while retaining its own local cultural traits (such as poetry and music). It was once the center of the Minoan civilization (c. 2700–1420 BC), which is currently regarded as the earliest recorded civilization in Europe.
In Ancient Greek, the name Crete first appears in Homer's Odyssey. Crete is mountainous, and its character is defined by a high mountain range crossing from west to east, which lavished Crete with valleys.
Crete also has its fair share of legends. According to Greek Mythology, The Psychro cave at Mount Dikti was the birthplace of the god Zeus. Zeus launched a lightning bolt at a giant lizard that was threatening Crete; the lizard immediately turned to stone and became the island of Dia. The island can be seen from Knossos and it has the shape of a giant lizard. Also, the labyrinth of the Palace of Knossos was the setting for the myth of Theseus and the Minotaur in which the Minotaur was slain by Theseus.
Inhabited since prehistoric times, Buthrotum was a city of the Greek tribe of the Chaonians; later, it was a Roman colony and a bishopric (a district governed by bishops). Buthrotum was in a strategically significant position due its access to the Straits of Corfu. By the 4th century BC it had grown in importance and included a theatre, a sanctuary to Asclepius, and an agora (a gathering place). Around 380 BC, the settlement was fortified with a new 870 meter long wall with five gates and enclosed an area of four hectares. It entered into decline in Late Antiquity, before being abandoned during the Middle Ages after a major earthquake flooded most of the city.
According to the Roman writer Virgil, its legendary founder was the seer Helenus, a son of the king Priam of Troy, who had moved West after the fall of Troy.
Carthage is a suburb of Tunis, Tunisia, situated at the site of the ancient capital of the Carthaginian empire. It was little more than an agricultural village for nine hundred years until the middle of the 20th century; since then it has grown rapidly as an upscale coastal suburb with massive walls. The city's location made it master of the Mediterranean's maritime trade. All ships crossing the sea had to pass between Sicily and the coast of Tunisia where Carthage was built, giving it power and influence.
According to Roman sources, Phoenician colonists from modern-day Lebanon led by Queen Dido founded Carthage (c. 814 BC). Queen Dido was an exiled princess of the ancient Phoenician city of Tyre. At its peak, the metropolis she founded, Carthage, came to be called the "shining city," ruling 300 other cities around the western Mediterranean and leading the Phoenician world.
, Queen Dido is first introduced as an extremely respected character who had built a successful kingdom. Queen Dido offers sanctuary to Aeneas and his men, who have recently escaped from Troy. A spirit in the form of the messenger god sent by Jupiter reminds Aeneas that his mission is not to stay in Carthage with his new-found love, Dido, but to sail to Rome. Virgil ends his legend of Dido with the story that, when Aeneas tells Dido that he is leaving, her heart breaks and she orders a pyre to be built where she kills herself on Aeneas' sword.
Cumae was an ancient city of Magna Graecia on the coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea. Founded by settlers from Euboea in the 8th century BC, Cumae was the first Greek colony on the mainland of Italy and the seat of the Cumaean Sibyl. The ruins of the city lie near the modern village of Cuma in the Province of Naples, Campania, Italy.
The Greeks built upon the earlier dwellings of indigenous, Iron Age peoples whom they supplanted; memory of them was preserved as cave-dwellers named Cimmerians, among whom there was already an oral tradition. Its name refers to the peninsula of Cyme in Euboea. The colony was also the entry point in the Italian peninsula for the Euboean alphabet, the local variant of the Greek alphabet used by its colonists which was modified by the Etruscans and then by the Romans and became the Latin alphabet still used worldwide today.
In Roman mythology, there is an entrance to the underworld located at Avernus, a crater lake near Cumae, and was the route Aeneas used to descend to the Underworld.
Latium is the region of central western Italy in which the city of Rome was founded and grew to be the capital city of the Roman Empire. Latium has played an important role in history owing to its status as the host of the capital city of Rome, at one time the cultural and political centre of the Roman Empire. Consequently, Latium is home to celebrated works of art and architecture. Latium was originally a small triangle of fertile, volcanic soil on which resided the tribe of the Latins. The ancient language of the Latins was to become the immediate predecessor of the Old Latin language, the ancestor of Latin and the Romance languages.
At the top of the second-highest peak (Monte Cavo) was a temple to Jupiter, where the Latin held state functions before their subjection to Rome, and the Romans subsequently held religious and state ceremonies.
The poet Vergil, under Augustus, derived Latium from the word for "hidden" (English latent) because in a myth Saturn, ruler of the golden age in Latium, hid from Jupiter there.
Etna is a volcano on the east coast of Sicily, Italy, in the Province of Catania, between Messina and Catania. It is the tallest active volcano on the European continent. Mount Etna is one of the most active volcanoes in the world and is in an almost constant state of activity. The fertile volcanic soils support extensive agriculture, with vineyards and orchards spread across the lower slopes of the mountain and the broad Plain of Catania to the south.
In Greek Mythology, the deadly monster Typhon was trapped under this mountain by Zeus, the god of the sky and thunder and king of gods, and the forges of Hephaestus were said to also be located underneath it.
Drepanum was a harbour-town on the west-coast of Sicily. It was founded by the Elymians to serve as the port of the nearby city of Erice. It was originally named Drepana or Drépanon from the Greek word for "sickle" because of the curving shape of its harbour. Carthage seized control of the city in 260 BC, subsequently making it an important naval base. It was also the site of a crushing Roman defeat by the Carthaginians in 249 BC.
Two ancient legends tell of mythical origins for the city. In the first legend, Drepanum stemmed from the sickle which fell from the hands of the goddess Demeter while she was searching for her daughter Persephone, who had been kidnapped by Hades. The second myth features Saturn, who eviscerated his father Uranus, god of the sky, with a sickle which, falling into the sea, created the city. In ancient times, Saturn was the god-protector of Drepanum. Today, Saturn's statue stands in the centre of the city.
Eryx was an ancient city near a mountain in western Sicily, about 10 km from Drepanum and 3 km from the sea-coast. The mountain, now called Monte San Giuliano, is an isolated peak, rising in the midst of a low undulating tract, which causes an illusion: its elevation appears much more considerable than it really is. Because of this, it is known as the most lofty summit in the whole island. Hence, we find Eryx alluded to by Virgil and other Latin poets as a mountain of great magnitude. On its summit stood a celebrated temple of Venus, founded (according to the current legend) by Aeneas, from whence the goddess derived the surname of Venus Erycina, by which she is often mentioned by Latin writers. By the 19th century, the site was occupied by a castle. It was built of very large and massive stones that are all that remain of the ancient edifice; however, some fine granite columns in other parts of the town have doubtlessly belonged originally to the temple. The temple itself was surrounded by fortifications to make a strong fortress or citadel that can be seen from the city below.
Strophades (or Strofades) is a group of two small Greek islands in the Ionian Islands and are part of the Municipality of Zakynthos. The larger island, Stamfani, has an old fortress built in 1241; the smaller is Arpia. Both are sparsely vegetated and rocky.
The islands were identified as the dwelling-place of the Harpies. Virgil states that the Harpy drove the Trojans from Strophades. According to legend, the islands' name, meaning "Islands of Turning," refers to Zetes and Calaïs, who rescued Phineus from the Harpies. They succeeded in driving the monsters away but did not kill them, as requested from the goddess of the rainbow, Iris, who promised that Phineas would not be bothered by the Harpies again.