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Mehmet Mısa Kandırmaz

on 14 November 2013

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3.Use direct testing
Direct testing
: The testing of performance skills with tasks and tasks as authentic as possible.
To teach to write composition
T should get Ss to write compositions.

To teach to read scientific article
T should get Ss to read that in the test.
4.Make testing criterion-referenced
-Ss should have a clear picture of what they have to achieve;

-"Pass" is obtained.
Criterion-reference testing encourages positive attitudes to language learning for the Ss.

*Criterion-referenced: What candidates have to be able to and what degree of success let the Ss have a clear picture of what they have to achieve.
1.Test the abilities whose development
you want to encourage
If Ts want to encourage oral ability then test oral ability.

-There is a tendency to test what it is easiest to test rather than what it is the most important to test.

Certain abilities should be tested and also they should be given sufficient weight in relation to other abilities.

2.Sample widely and unpredictably
-The sample should represent as far as possible the full scope of what is specified.

E.g: The new TOEFL writing test set only two kinds of task; compare/contrast, describe/interpret a chart or a graph.

-Students might prepare only these skills and the backwash affect may not be beneficial.

-An effort should be made to test across the full range of specifications.

5.Base achievement test on objectives
-If achievement tests are based on objectives, they will provide a truer picture of what has actually been achieved.

* This is related to content validity.

-Ss and Ts should know and understand what the test demands- the rationale, specifications, sample items reason for supplying information of this kind is to increase test reliability.
6.Ensure the test is known and understand
by Ss and Ts
7.Where necessary, provide assistance to Ts
When a new test is introduced Ts need guidance and possibly training to achieve the
intended effect
. If not, it may simply cause chaos and disaffection for the teachers.
8.Counting the cost
-The desirable qualities of tests; Validity, reliability, and practically.
-A test should be easy and cheap to construct, administer, score and interpret.

What will be the cost not achieving beneficial backwash?
Considerations for tests: Money, time and true learning goal may be the answer of this question.
Thank you for listening
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