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Race - Part II

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Joshua Almes

on 24 October 2013

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Transcript of Race - Part II

Race - Part II
The Jazz Age to Today
Ida B. Wells

- antilynching activist
- opposed racism in public
- Memphis newspaper called for her death
Race Riots - using violence as the answer

East St. Louis --- 49 deaths (weapons factory)
Chicago --- 10,000 people riot for three days.
(38 deaths, 520 injured)
Many feel that the cause was the 1st Great Migration
JAZZ AGE
Urbanization - cities are growing in the 20's
- ecclectic mix of cultures
- rapid assimilation between all groups
Booker T.'s fear embodied
NAACP doubles in membership
Daily threats of lynching
Marcus Garvey - Jamaican immigrant

1. Powerful speaker, poetic rhetoric
2. Wants practical solutions for African Americans
3. Inspires a sense of African American pride.
Harlem Renaissance
- artistic movement centered around "Black Pride."
1. celebrates positive attributes of black culture.

2. white Americans see beauty in cultural role of blacks

3. distracts Harlem residents from ongoing poverty.
Jazz

-
widely embraced by white Americans
Louis Armstrong and
Duke Ellington
- two of the greatest
composers of all time.
First truly "American" music
- based on slave chants
Great Depression - equalizes black and white Americans through a
Cycle of Poverty
FDR appoints many blacks to political office:

1. African Americans turn from Republicans to Democrats
2. FDR does not support antilynching laws.
WWII - Why should black people die for America?
WWII was a battle fought for democracy --- blacks didn't have democracy in the US
"Here lies a black man killed
fighting a yellow man for the
protection of a white man."
Segregated units until the last year
of battle (1945).
Asian Americans become targets
of most of American racism until
the fifties.
Internment Camps - 110,000 Japanese Americans
forced into internment camps.
After the War:

1. Blacks have more respect from the war.

2. 2nd Great Migration - Midwest, Mid-Atlantic and West Coast

3. President Truman forces Congress to study Civil Rights --- something must be done.
Thurgood Marshall

- highly educated lawyer

-sets out to overturn Plessy ruling
- Targets segregated school systems (Douglass)
Brown v. Board of Education
- Linda Brown, 4 blocks from a white school.
- Use of Psychology --- Doll Experiment
- Supreme Court rules unanimously
in favor of Brown and establishes a basis
for the process of
desegregation.
Whites and Blacks in school together
- Little Rock 9 --- Arkansas surrenders
authority to Federal government
=
Great Depression
Eugenics --- the first step to genocide
- a pseudoscience that
attempts to apply a biological
definition of race.
Why?
Montgomery Bus Boycott
Boycott ---
to abstain from
purchasing or using a service
to make a political statement
No African Americans rode
a single bus in Montgomery,
Alabama for over a year.
Rosa Parks -

NAACP officer who refuses
to give up her seat to a white passenger.
The Montgomery bus system desegregated
proving that ordinary people can make a difference
when they bond together.
MARTIN LUTHER KING JR.
MALCOLM X
- Passionate speaker appeals to listeners
- Reverend
Philosophy:

1. Don't follow a law if it's unfair.
2. Be disobedient without violence.
3. Put all others before yourself
... even those who oppress you.
"We will wear you down with our capacity to suffer."
Impressive speaker makes listeners think
Influenced by:
-
peace
ful protest
-
equal
ity of mankind
-
love
your enemies
- Muslim minister (DOES NOT REPRESENT ALL OTHER MUSLIMS)
Early Philosophy:

1. White people are "devils."
2. African Americans must protect themselves by any means necessary.
3. Return to segregation, separate black
nation and the payment of reparations.
Malcolm X's philosophy changes
after he visits Mecca.
Philosophy:

1. Realizes that racism causes violence.
2. Wants African Americans to be proud of their heritage.
3. Believes that race is a global problem --- wants the
United States to help support third world countries.
SNCC - Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
1. College students who volunteered (Black and White)

2. Helped many southern citizens pass literacy tests.

3. Believed in peaceful demonstrations.
Mississippi Burning - Summer of '64
Freedom Summer
March on Washington
"I Have a Dream Speech"
Civil Rights Act of 1964
- the federal government ends discrimination
based on race, gender, and national origin.
24th amendment - no more poll tax
Affirmative Action - if two candidates
are equally qualified for a position;
an employer must hire the most
"underrepresented candidate."
Race, gender, national origin,
religion, sexual orientation...
http://remappingdebate.org/mediapopup?content=node/353
http://www.thedefendersonline.com/2009/12/11/top-25-african-american-films-of-all-time/
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/01/10/avatar-critics-see-racist-theme_n_418155.html
"Put simply, Tolkien's good guys are white and the bad guys are black, slant-eyed, unattractive, inarticulate and a psychologically undeveloped horde."
Eugenics – a pseudoscience that tries to prove that one race is superior to another.
Race is a lot more than just skin color. It’s all of the culture that makes up somebody’s identity. You can’t choose what color you are but you can choose your culture. Throughout history, people have been judged by things that they have no control over. This is why eugenics is a pseudoscience.
THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE ...
In WWII, many blacks did not want to die for a country that did not
give them all of their rights.
Thurgood Marshall was a highly educated lawyer who wanted to end segregation.
In the Supreme Court case,
Brown v. Board of Education
, it was decided that segregation in schools is unfair to children.
In Montgomery, Alabama, a year-long bus boycott helped end segregation in cities.
In Montgomery, Alabama, a year-long bus boycott helped end segregation in cities. No African Americans rode the bus for a single year. It started when Rosa Parks refused to give up her bus seat to a white passenger.
Boycott – when a group of people stop paying money for something
The Civil Rights movement was best
represented by the March on Washington.
Hundreds of thousands of people gathered
to hear MLK give his "I have a dream" speech.

In 1964, Lyndon Johnson helped pass the National Civil Rights Act, ending most legal segregation in the United States.
Full transcript