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LifeSpan Development

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Amber Shriver

on 19 November 2014

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Transcript of LifeSpan Development

Lifespan Development
PSYC211 Fall 2014
Conception and Pregnancy
DNA: Provides instructions for the cells to grow and sustain life
Chromosomes: Each molecule of DNA
46 chromosomes and 23 pairs
23rd pair is the gender chromosome--- dad's sperm decides
Genes: Units of information located on the chromosome
Gamete: Reproductive cell (egg and sperm)
Allele: Variations of a gene
Genome: The entire genetic code for a species
Genotype: One person's genetic code
Phenotype: The expression of one person's genetic code
Dominant Genes: Genes that express themselves
Recessive Genes: Genes that are hidden
X-linked genes: Genes that are recessive and are on the X chromosome therefore they impact males more than females
Newborn and Infancy
Early Childhood
-Cognitive:
Focus on exploring the world through direct interaction and the beginnings of symbolic thought
-Limited logical ability
-Identity:
Focus on developing autonomy, and initiative
-Education:
Focus on the dichotomy between teacher centered and student centered teaching
-Neurological:
Limbic system developing
-Physical:
Adult proportions; Gross and Fine Motor Skill Development
-Moral:
Focus on gaining rewards and avoiding punishments
Old Age
Identity:
Focus on developing integrity
Neurological:
Brain begins to slow down; myleination thins
Physical:
Body begins to slow down; stroke; osteoporosis
Death
Middle Childhood
-Cognitively:
Focus on exploring the world through logic and rules
-Limited abstract thinking ability
-Identity:

Focus on developing industry
-Physical:
Focus on developing muscle strength
-Neurological:
Beginning of Executive Functioning
-Moral:
Focus on social rules and social norms
Adolescence
-Cognitively:
Focus on exploring the world through abstract thought
-Identity:
Focus on developing an identity that is distinctive from parents
-Neurological:
Finish the development of the pre-frontal cortex
-Physical:
Puberty
-Moral:
Focus on ideals
Adulthood
-Identity:
Focus on developing intimacy and generativity
-Physical:
Body at it's peak; Peak fertility
-Neurological:
Brain is finished development and is also at it's peak
Every child starts as a
zygote
or a single cell
Germinal Period:
First two weeks of pregnancy
Zygote duplicates and divides
Stem Cells
are produces which direct the production of all the other cells
Differentiation:
Cells specialize depending on location
Week 2: Outer cells become placenta and the inner cells become the embryo; outer cells implant in the uterus lining
Embryonic Period:
Weeks 3-8
Day 14: Primitive streak appears which eventually develops into the nervous system
Week 4: head and face starts to form and the heart starts to beat
Week 4: Arms and legs form
Development occurs from head to tail with the extremities forming last... the brain needs the most time
Fetal Period:
Weeks 9-birth
Sex organs start to develop
Male fetus experiences a rush of testosterone
Body systems begin the develop
Brain increases to six times in size
22 weeks: The newborn may be able to survive on their own outside the womb
The brain begins to fold
Oxytocin is released which prepares the fetus for delivery and begins labor
Genetics
Twins
Monozygotic:
Genetically identical
Dizygotic:
Share half of their genes
Class Feedback Form
Class Policies

All Class information is presented on this Prezi
Office Hours are right before class (8:00am-9:00am)
DKH1031
Also by appointments
Emails
ashrive2@masonlive.gmu.edu
Make sure your first and last name is in the email or I will delete it
Make sure that you do not send double emails within 48 hours of each other or I will put your email address on an automatic delete list
Deadlines for papers are flexible
You must be present in class when exams are given
All assignments can be redone for full credit
All assignments must be turned in hard copy
Guided Notes:
Print before class begins
Turn in at the end of class
Nature Vs. Nurture

Quiz 1 Question
Based on this information at what moment do you think that life begins? Do you think that abortion is considered murder? Do you think that abortion should be legal?
Nature:
Influence of the genes that people inherit
Nurture:
Environmental influences
Health and diet of the embryo's mother
Family
School
Community
Society
Epigentics:
How do the environments alter gene expression and ultimately alter the genes themselves
Quiz 2 Question
Based on the information we have covered in today's class; which do you think is more important nature or nurture? What are some interventions we can develop to ensure the best outcomes for children?
Parenting Video Clip

Review
A set of twins who are genetically identical are _________________.
A set of twins are not genetically identical are ____________________.
The three stages of pregnancy are ____________________.
The heart starts beating at _____ weeks.
The first development of the nervous systems occurs during this period ____________.
The baby can survive on its own outside the mother's womb at ____ weeks (with intensive care).
___________ is released in order to trigger labor.
A ____________ is a person's genetic code.
A ____________ is the expression of a person's genetic code.
X-linked traits are more common in ______________.
Attachment Theory
Secure Attachment (Type B): Infants and children feel comfortable and confident
Caregiver is the basis for exploration
Will explore away from the caregiver but always comes back
2/3 of infants
I
nsecure Avoidant Attachment (Type A):
Play independently without maintaining contact
Insecure Resistant Attachment (Type C):
Unwilling to leave the caregiver
Disorganized Attachment (D):
The infant is confused
Elevated cortisol responses to stress
Least common
Parenting Styles
Authoritarian:

Very strict parents
(Dictators)
Parent is not questioned
Strict punishment (usually be physical)
Clear rules and high standards
No opinions from children
Limited affection
Children are conscientious, obedient and quiet but not very happy; tend to leave home before adolescence ends
Permissive:

Laid back parents
(Friends)
Few demands
Relaxed discipline
Low expectations
Nurturing and Accepting
Defend children, arrange playdates, sacrifice to buy toys
Children are unhappy and lack self-control in relationships; tend to stay at home after adolescence
Authroritative:

Flexible Parents
(Guides)
Set boundaries
High expectations but are forgiving
Children are successful articulate, happy, and generous
Children succeed in cultures that value initiative
N
eglectful\Uninvolved Parenting: Parents are not there
Oblivious to behavior
Children are Immature, sad and lonely
Parenting Styles Video Clip
Epigentics Explanation
Temperament
Biologically based core of individual differences in style of approach and response to the environment that is stable across time and situations
Easy:
40%
Calm and relaxed
Predictable feeding schedules
Friendly and happy
Self soothing
Difficult:
10%
Irritable and fussy
Become upset easily
Have unpredictable feeding schedules
Constant activity
Cannot self sooth
Slow to Warm up:
15%
Do not like new situations
Cautious and fussy
Hard to Classify
35%
Cognitive Development
Sensorimotor Stage
Infants learn through senses and motor skills
Stage 1 (Reflexes) (0-1 month)
Lasts only one month
Senses and motor reflexes
Stage 2 (First habits) (1 month-4 months)
Perception
Can adapt their reflexes to specific stimuli
Stage 3 (Making interesting sights last) (4 months-8 months)
Infants attempt to produce exciting experiences
Noises, sights, people, etc.
Stage 4 (New adaptation and anticipation) (8 months-1 year)
Babies try to reach goals
Initiate and anticipate
Object permanence:
That objects or people continue when they are no longer insight
Stage 5 (New Means through active experimentation) (1 year- 18 months)
Goal directed anticipation is more expansive and creative
Little Scientists
Stage 6 (New Means through mental combinations) (18 months- 2years)
Thought and memory
Deferred imitation:
Child imitates behavior that they noticed hours or days earlier
Can pretend
Cognitive Development
Pre-Operational Intelligence (2 years-6 years)
Language and imagination without logical operational thinking
Symbolic thought:
When an object or word can stand for something else
Biases:
Animism:
Belief that natural objects are alive
Centrism:
Tendency to focus on one aspect of the situation at the exclusion of others
Egocentrism:
Contemplate the world exclusively from personal perspective
Focus on Appearance
Static Reasoning:
The world is unchanging
Irreversibility:
That reversing a process does not undo what has been done
Inability to understand conservation:
Something remains the same despite the changes in appearance

Nature is _______________________.
Nurture is ______________________.
Epigentics is ____________________.
Securely attached infants are _______________________________.
Insecurely avoidant infants are _______________________________.
Insecure resistant infants are _______________________________.
Disorganized infants are _______________________________.
Review
Cognitive Development
-
Concrete Operational Thought:
Ability to reason logically about direct experiments and perceptions
-Classification:
Organize things into groups based on a common characteristic they share
-Seriation:
The understanding that things can be arrange in a logical series
-Less egocentric and more flexible
Cognitive Development
-Formal Operational Thought:
More systematic logical thinking and the ability to understand and systematically manipulate abstract concepts
-Hypothetical Reasoning:
Ability to reason about if-than statements that do not impact reality
-Deductive Reasoning:
Can move from an abstract idea to a specific conclusion
Social Learning (Vygotsky)

Children learn when adults present challenges, offer assistance, add crucial information and encourage motivation
Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD):
What the child can do with help
Scaffolding:
Temporary help from parents to reach the ZPD
Overimitation:
Imitate the irrelevant actions of adults
Criticisms of Piaget
1) Piaget believes that development is automatic and the same for all children
Behaviorists believe that development is contingent on the environment
We know that children progress through stages at different paces
We know that some children do not progress through all the stages; Piaget does not offer an explanation for this
2) Piaget may have used overly complicated tasks to measure certain constructs such as theory of mind
Modern research shows that children in early childhood are much more sophisticated thinkers than Piaget originally thought
3) Piaget expects thinking across developmental tasks to be the same in the same stage
This has been shown false; children pick up on different concepts and apply them to different tasks with diversity
4) Piaget believes that it useless to teach children beyond their development level
Vygotsky's theory of Zone of Proximal Development
Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development
Kay C. Wood, Harlan Smith, Daurice Grossniklaus
Department of Educational Psychology and Instructional Technology, University of Georgia
What do you think???
Quiz 3
You are working for a toy company that wants to design educational toys for children across the lifespan. Using Piaget's 4 stages of cognitive development what types of toys would you recommend be created for children during each stage?
Review
-Piaget's first stage of cognitive development is_____________________.
-It has six stages. They are _________, __________, ___________, ____________, _________________ and ____________.
-Piaget's second stage of cognitive development is _____________________.
-Some common biases during this stage are ________________, __________________, ________________, __________________, ________________, __________________, ________________.
-Piaget's third stage of cognitive development is ____________________________.
-During this stage the child can _______________________ and ____________________.
-Piaget's final stage of cognitive development is ___________________________.
-During this stage the child can ______________________ and ________________________.
Cognitive Development Summary
Which One of Piaget's Four Stages??
-Cognitive:
Focus on exploring the world through the senses
-Identity:
Focus on developing trust
-Neurological:
Brain becomes very connected and then prunes unnecessary connections


Identity Development
Trust vs. Mistrust
Can the child let the mother out of his sight?
Can the world satisfy the baby's basic needs?
Consistency, continuity and sameness of experience
Positive Resolution:
The baby trusts the world and can form secure relationships later in life
Problems:
Suspicious and pessimistic
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
Does the toddler have self-control over their own body
Positive Resolution:
Toddler gains a sense of independence
Problems:
Toddler feels like they are dependent on their parents and they prone to shame
and low self efficacy
Identity Development

Initiative vs. Guilt
Undertaking, planning and attacking tasks
Outcome determines pride vs. guilt
Parents should guide and not ignore emotions
Positive Resolutions:
Parents help children learn to be proud of their accomplishments and develop a self-concept
Problems:
Low self worth; guilt
Identity Development
Industry vs. Inferiority
Learn skills needed for later on
Productivity vs. incompetence
Intrinsically motivated to complete tasks
Productivity fosters joy and self-control
Positive Resolution:
They are competent at tasks
Problems:
Low self concept, substance abuse
Identity Development
Identity vs. Role Confusion
Positive Resolution:
Identity Achievement:
Adolescents have reconsidered the goals and values of their parents and culture and they have decided on their own goals and values for themselves
Discover their own identity
Problems:
Role confusion:
Lack of commitment to any goals or values
Identity foreclosure:
Accept traditional values or reject traditional values
Moratorium:
A time out that includes some exploration (ie college)
Identity Development
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Should i share my personal life with others?
Positive Resolution:
Able to form secure Romantic Relationships
Problems:
Loneliness
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Can I generate work that cares for the next generation in some way
Positive Resolution:
Parenthood, passing on of the culture
Negative Resolution:
You don't contribute to the world in anyway; depression
Identity Development
Integrity vs. Despair
Does my life have a purpose that is somehow connected to a bigger purpose?
Positive Resolution:
Found meaning in life and peaceful death
Negative Consequence:
Regret; Depression
Identity Development Summary

Review

1) Erikson's first stage of identity development is
Trust vs. Mistrust
. The favorable outcome is
Trust in the future.
The unfavorable outcome is
suspicion and pessimism.
2) Erikson's second stage of identity development is
Autonomy vs. doubt.
The favorable outcome is
Self-control
. The unfavorable outcome is
low self-efficacy and shame.
3) Erikson's third stage of identity development is
intiative vs. guilt
. The favorable outcome is
you understand that you can accomplish tasks.
The unfavorable outcome is
low self worth and guilt.
4) Erikson's fourth stage of identity development is
industry vs. inferiority.
The favorable outcome is
understanding that you are competence at tasks.
The unfavorable outcome is a
low self concept and a sense of being inferior.
5) Erikson's fifth stage of identity development is
identity vs. role confusion.
The favorable outcome is
identity achievement.
The unfavorable outcome is
role confusion, identity foreclosure or moratorium
.
6) Erikson's sixth stage of identity development is
intimacy vs. isolation
. The favorable outcome is
successful relationships.
The unfavorable outcome is
loneliness.
7) Erikson's seventh stage of identity development is
generativity vs. stagnation.
The favorable outcome is
parenthood or passing on of the culture.
The unfavorable outcome is
don't contribute to the world; self-absorption.
8) Erikson's eigth stage of identity development is
integrity vs. despair.
The favorable outcome is
acceptance of death
. The unfavorable outcome is
regret and depression.
What do you think??
Criticisms of Erikson
Quiz 5

Your friend is not sure why she is having so much trouble having functional romantic relationships. Write about what might have gone wrong in each of the stages leading up to the isolation vs. intimacy identity crisis to result in her inability to have functional romantic relationships.
1) Carol Gilligam
-Erikson's stages are gender specific to males. Identity development for females should result in intimacy and relationships rather than autonomy and independence.
2) Erikson used thought rather than the scientific method to create his theory.
3) Erikson's stages become vaguer and more difficult to define later in life (i.e. integrity vs. despair).
4) Are the identity crises ever fully resolved?
5) Erikson's stages are very culture dependent.
Erikson’s Psychosocial Developmental Stages , James S. Flemming, 2004
Education
Child Centered Education:
Stress each child's development and growth
Montessori Schools:
Emphasize individual pride and achievement
Focus on literacy tasks
Help children to seek out learning tasks
Reggio Emilia Schools:
Encourages creativity
Teacher Directed Programs:
Stress academics and are taught by one adult to an entire group
Prepare children for elementary school
Reading, writing, arithmetic
Inspired by behaviorism
Standardized testing
Education
Hidden Curriculum:
The set of values that are implicitly taught in school
Gender Differences:
Girls are still performing higher in school
Physiological maturation
Most elementary school teachers are women
Less likely to enjoy the challenge??
Education
-Entity Approach to Intelligence:
Ability to have intelligence is innate and is a fixed quantity present at birth
-Incremental Approach to Intelligence:
Ability increases with work
-Stereotype threat
-Choosing vocations

Neurological Development
Cortex
increases in size and complexity (allows for higher level cognitive capabilities)
Prefrontal cortex
begins to develop (planning, prioritizing and reflecting)
Myelination
occurs which allows thought to occur at a much faster pace
Difficulty focusing or switching between tasks (executive functioning)
Corpus Collosum
develops and myelinates
Allows for communication between the hemispheres
Limbic system
increases in activity
Amygdala:
fear
Hippocampus:
memory
Hypothalmus:
Reacts to the fear and memory
Neurological Development
Further increase in brain connection that allows for reading and other academic skills
Development of
social skills
Reaction time
increases
Selective attention:
ability to only concentrate on some stimuli
Working memory
dramatically increases
Long-term memory
also dramatically increases
Knowledge base
increases (experience, opportunity and motivation)
Metacognition:
Being able to recognize how they accomplished a task
Neurological Development
Growth in instinctive and emotional parts of the brain
Hormones aid the amygdala in development
Emotional rushes and lack of logical thinking
Reward part of brain works better than emotional part
Adolescent egocentrism:
Intense thinking about self and what others think of them
Personal fable:
One is destined to have a legendary life
Invincibility fable:
They are unable to be killed
Imaginary Audience:
Everyone is watching all of the time
Neurological Development

Brain slows down
Reaction time lengths
Multitasking s more difficult
Senses become less acute
Neurological Development
Brain growth slows
Neurotransmitter production slows
Myleination
thins
Hippocampus, prefrontal cortex
and
gray matter
shrink
Use more of brain to solve problems
Neurological Development
Rapid growth in axons, dendrites and synapses
Dendrites
Transient exuberance:
rapid growth of dendrites
Pruning:
Disconnect the dendrite connections
Neurological Development

Quiz 6
Based on the material that we have covered in class and your own prior knowledge do you think that the age to get a driver's license should be higher or lower? What about the age to legally drink?
Working as table groups make a timeline of development that contains the important milestones we have learned about so far. Make sure the include:
Prenatal development
Personality development (only in infancy)
Brain development
Piaget's cognitive development
Erikson's identity development
Parenting styles (not on timeline)
Brain Development Videos
Baby: shortened

Child
Teenage
Teenage: Addiction

Baby
Childhood: shortened

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/humanspark/lessons/the-developing-child/video-segments/476/
Physical Development
-Children slim down and fat turns to muscle
-Grow 4 1\2 pounds per year and about 3 inches
-Danger: children are not getting proper nutrition
-iron, zinc and calcium deficiencies
-Gross and fine motor skills develop
-paint recognizable images, write words, read, ride a bicycle, do a cartwheel, tie shoes and catch a ball
Physical Development

-Growth slows to 2 inches per year
-Muscles get stronger
-Active play is important:
-Better overall health
-Less obesity
-Improved problem solving
-Gains in respect
-Childhood obesity
-genetics
-parents
-environment

Physical Development
-Puberty: Rapid physical growth and sexual maturation
-Girls: breasts, wider hips, periods being
-Boys: growth of sex organs, ejaculation, appearance of facial hair, deepening of voice
-Hormones control the onset of puberty
-starts in the pituitary gland
-pituitary gland stimulates the adrenal glands
-Sex hormones are produced (estradiol and testosterone)
-Controlled by genes, gender, culture, body fat (leptin), stress (hastens)
-Is early puberty good or bad?

Physical Development
-Body is at it's physical peak
-Fertility is also at its peak
-Age 25 is the year women on average have their first child (26 is the year they get married)
-Pre-marital sex is common
-STDs are on the rise
Physical Development
-Primary Aging: Universal changes that occur with age
-Secondary Aging: Consequences of particular genetic weaknesses, health habits and environment
-Compression of morbidity: Shorten the amount of time people remain ill and postpone the fatalitiy of the illness
-Osteoporosis: Low bone mass
-Dementia: Pathological loss of brain functioning
-mental confusion and forgetfulness
-Alzheimer's Disease
-Plaques (surround the neurons) and tangles (in the neurons) in the cerebral cortex which destroy the ability of the neurons to communicate with each other
-Strokes
-Temporary obstructions fo the blood vessels in the brain
-Destroy parts of the brain
-Blurred vision, weak or paralyzed limbs, slurred speech or mental confusion
-Parkinson's Disease: Tremors in the muscles a the dopamine producing neurons degenerate
-Less mental impact

Physical Development Movies
Prenatal
Infancy
Middle Childhood
Early Childhood
Adolescence
Physical Development
Quiz
If you had limited resources to feed a population and could only ensure that a group of children received adequate nutrients during one time period in development which would you choose and why?
Review
Review
Play
Stages of Social Play
Solitary Play:
A child plays alone
Onlooker Play:
A child watches others play
Parallel Play:
Children play with similar objects in similar ways but not together
Associative Play:
Children interact, sharing materials but their play is not reciprocal
Cooperative Play:
Children play together, create dramas or take turns

Rough-And-Tumble Play:
Children chase, wrestle and grab each other
May help the prefrontal cortex develop as children learn to regulate emotions, practice social skills and strength bodies
Sociodramatic Play:
Children act out various role and plots
Explore and rehearse social roles
Learn how to persuade playmates
Practice emotional regulation
Develop self-concept
-Play is a sign of healthy development and can provide cues about how the child will develop later in life
-Adults involvement in play depends on the security of the community
-Children's play typically starts out as an individual activity then becomes a social one
Active Play
Functional play
Plays with toys in the way that they were designed to be played with
Constructive play
Creates something while playing (i.e. building a tower out of blocks)
Dramatic or symbolic play
Games with rules
Types of Play
Moral Development
Preconventional Moral Reasoning:
Avoid punishments and gain rewards
Stage 1:
Punishment and Obedience
Avoid punishment
Do what is in your own self-interest
Stage 2:
Look out for yourself
Take care of yourself and only yourself
Moral Development
Conventional Moral Reasoning:
Social Rules
Stage 3:
Social approval is the most important; strive for proper behavior to please others
Stage 4:
It is important to obey the laws set by society even when nobody is looking
Moral Development
Postconventional Moral Reasoning:
focus on ideals
Stage 5:
We obey societal rules because they are established by everyone they are based on mutual agreement; parties can leave at anytime; disobedience is not always immoral
Stage 6:
Universal principles determine right and wrong; establish these through individual reflection

Review: Moral Development
1. Kohlberg's first stage of moral development is _______________________. It has two stages. In stage one children are concerned with ________ ___________. In stage two children are concerned with getting ___________.
2. Kohlberg's second stage of moral development is ________________. It also has two stages. In stage three children are concerned with _________ ________. In stage four children are concerned with _______________.
3) Kohlber's third stage of moral development is ________________. It also has two stages. In stage five people are concerned with ___________ _______________. In stage six people are concerned with _______________ _________________ of right and wrong.
Quiz: Moral Development
Write what someone in each stage of Kohlberg's 6 stages would do and why.
Criticisms of Kohlberg
Is it good for society for people to strive to have their own principles of right and wrong rather than obeying the laws that society has created? Is that more ethical than obedience? What if the person is wrong?
Cultural bias: Eastern societies tend to stop in stage 3 of Kohlberg's theory; but they also show moral growth unaccounted for by Kohlberg's theory.
Gender bias: Men are more concerned with abstract hypothetical ideals while women are more concerned with interpersonal relationships.
Difficult to operationally define the stages
Is a stage still valid if the majority of the population doesn't reach it?
W.C. Crain. (1985). Theories of Development. Prentice-Hall. pp. 118-136.
Moral Development Movies
Emotional Development

Shared Attention and Self-Regulation (0-3 months):
The child is able to show interest in the activities of the people around him or her while also remaining calm
Engagement and Relating (2-7 months):
The child is able to create relationships with others
Two Way Purposeful Interactions (3-10 months):
The baby is able to interact with the people around him or her in order to achieve the goals that he or she wants
Emotional Development
Shared Social Problem Solving (9-18 months):
The child is able to use higher order social problem solving skills to achieve his or her wants and needs
(i.e. pointing)
Creating Symbols and Ideas (18-30 months):

The child is able to use language to express his or her wants and needs and then he or she is also able to pretend that others (i.e. dolls) want or need the same things
Building Bridges Between Ideas (30-48 months):
The child is able to express the wants and needs of others and to begin to understand that others have wants and needs that are different from the child's
Emotional Development Therapy
http://www.interactingwithautism.com/section/treating/floort
Emotional Development
Review of Emotional Development
1) The first stage of emotional development is _________________. During this stage children _______________.
2) The second stage of emotional development is _________________. During this stage children _______________.
3) The third stage of emotional development is _________________. During this stage children _______________.
4) The fourth stage of emotional development is _________________. During this stage children _______________.
5) The fifth stage of emotional development is _________________. During this stage children _______________.
6) The sixth stage of emotional development is _________________. During this stage children _______________.
ABA Therapy Movie
Emotional Development Quiz

Now that we have learned about two different forms of Autism therapy which one would you do and why?
Sexual Development
*Oral stage:
Infant is fixated on the mouth
-Lips, tongue and gums are the focus of the pleasurable sensations in the baby's body
-Sucking and feeding are the most stimulating activities
-Conflict in this stage:
switching from the mother's milk to other food
-Oral Fixation:
Child is distressed or anxious and will talk, eat, drink, or bite excessively as an adult
Sexual Development
*Anal Stage:
The anus is the source of pleasurable sensations
-
Conflict:
Toilet training
-Anal Fixation:
Refuses to comply and seeks extreme self-control and regularity in life
*
Phallic Stage:
The penis is the source of pleasurable sensations
-Boys are proud of their penises
-Girls feel guilt\shame because they don't have one
-
Conflict:
male gender roles
-Phallic Fixation:
obsession with guns, sins and guilt; homosexuality
-Oedipus complex:
Boys fall in love with their mother
-Superego:
Guilt about the Oedipus complex causes them to develop a conscience that is quick to judge and to punish
-Electra Complex:
Girls fall in love with their father
-Identification:
Children try to behave like the same-sex parent

Sexual Development
*Latency:
No sexual needs
-Children put energy into schoolwork and sports
Sexual Development
*Genital Stage: The genitals are the source of please and the young person seeks satisfaction and stimulation in heterosexual relationships
-Conflict: Sexual Pleasure
Review
Stage one of Freud's stages is ___________. The child is fixated on _________.
Stage two of Freud's stages is _____________. The child is fixated on ___________.
Stage three of Freud's stages is _________. During this stage the child is focused on his __________, or the lack of this organ. Additionally the child may develop an ________ ________ or an _______ ______ where he or she wants to kill the same sex parent.
________ is when all sexual urges are silent during middle childhood.
Stage four of Freud's stages is _____________. During this stage the adolescent is fixated on __________.
Video
Criticisms of Freud
Freud's theories are untestable
Freud's theories are based off of wealthy middle class women in the 1800's suffering from hysteria
Freud's theories are extremely male centric
Womb Envy (Karen Horney)
Freud has a difficult relationship with his own father which has been thought to influence his work
What Do You Think??
Working as a table create your own stages of sexuality. There should be at least 4 stages. Your stages should include an explanation for how gender roles develop and how romantic relationships develop.
Quiz
Language Development
-Babies start learning while in the womb
-They tend to prefer the language that their mothers speak
-By 6 months a baby can understand if a person is speaking by looking at mouth movements
-Child-Directed Speech:
Higher pitch, simpler words, repetition, varied speed and exaggerated emotional tones
-Babbling:

(6 months)
Start practicing sounds by repeating certain syllables
-Pointing happens at 10 months
-Holophrase:

(1 year)
Single words that express entire thoughts
-Naming Explosion:
once a child grasps the ability to say 50 words
(18 months)
his or her ability to speak grows much more rapidly
-Grammar:
(18-24 months)
All methods used in language to communicate meaning; really begins when 2 word communication begins
Language Development
-Sensitive period for learning language
-Vocabulary grows from 500 words (age 2) to 10,000 words (age 6)
-Fast Mapping:
Mental categories for words are developed that allow the child to learn new words faster
-Logical Extension:
After learning and categorizing a new word the child will use it to describe other words int he category
-Learning to Read
-Code Focused Teaching:
Can they break down the ltters into sounds
-Book reading
-Parent Education
-Language enhancement
-Preschool programs
-Overregulation
(over applying the rules of grammar) occurs
Language Development
-Pragmatics:
Practical use of language to communicate in a wide variety of contexts
-Formal vs. Informal code of language
-Immersion:
When children are placed in a classroom with complete instruction in another language
-Bilingual Schooling (ESL):
Instruction in two languages
Quiz
Language Development
Theories of Language Development

1) Children need to be taught
-babbling is reinforced by parents and other caregivers
2) Culture and evolution encourage talking
-social impulses
3) Infants teach themselves
-Language Acquisition Device:
the mental structure that allows for the gaining of language
What Do You Think?
1) Did you like the class?
2) What would you change?
3) What would you keep the same?
4) Are there any units that you wish you could have gone more in depth on?
5) Are there any units that we should have not covered?
6) Are there any units that we did not cover but you wish we did?
7) Did you like the format of the tests?
8) Did you like the format of the class? Did we cover enough information?
9) Were the constant quizzes and guided notes helpful?
10) Were the directions for the papers clear?
Full transcript