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Transcript of Interprofessional Practice
Its simply not about lying on the couch
and talking about it!
Group Special Education Education Psychologist
Early Intervention Teacher
Post Graduate Diploma of Teaching
Group Special Education - Early Intervention Team
"I became a psychologist to be able to help make a difference in children’s lives, to learn about the human physique"
Studied and worked in South Africa
Moved to New Zealand with family.
Career path to Educational Psychology rather than doing Clinical Psychology due to experiences when working in a classroom – the need to help children.
Role in Education
Grade 2 teacher in South Africa
Practical in Primary School
Psychology internship at a High School
Worked in private practice in psychology
GSE Education Psychologist and Early Intervention Teacher
“Early Intervention staff provide specialist support for children who have a developmental or learning delay, a disability, a behaviour difficulty or a communication difficulty that significantly affects their ability to participate and learn at home or in an early childhood education setting.”
(Ministry of Education, 2013)
Annan, J., Bowler, J., Mentis, M., & Phillipson, R. (2008) Understanding Diversity in Educational Psychology Teams, School Psychology International, 29, 387-399. DOI:10.1177/0143034308096440
Carpenter, B. (2000) Sustaining the family: Meeting the needs of families of children with disabilities, British Journal of Special Education, 27(3) , 135-144
Carrington, S., & Macarthur, J. (2012) Teaching in Inclusive School Communities. Milton, Queensland., Australia: John Wiley & Sons
Code of Ethics Review Group. (2002). Code of Ethics For Psychologists Working in Aotearoa/New Zealand, 2002.Retrieved from. http://www.psychologistsboard.org.nz/cms_show_download.php?id=31
Dockett, S., Perry, B., & Kearney, E. (2011). Starting school with special needs: Issues for families with complex support needs as their children start school. Exceptionality Education International, 21(2), 45-61.
Gargiulo, R.M., & Metcalf, D.J.(2010) Collaboration and Cooperative Teaching: Tools for Teaching All Learers. In Teaching in Today’s Inclusive Classroom: A Universal Design for Learning Approach, Wadsworth Cengage Learning, United States of America
Crozier, S., & Sileo, N. (2010) Encouraging Positive Behavior With Social Stories: An Intervention for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders, Teaching Exceptional Children, 37(6), 26-31, Retrieved from http://www.hsmjs.org/autism%20handouts/encouraging%20positive%20behavior.pdf
Florian, L. (2008) Special or inclusive education: future trends. British Journal of Special Education, 35(4), 201-208
Grey, A. (2010). Developmental theories in early childhood education. In B. Clark & A. Grey (Eds.), Ata kite ate pae - scanning the horizon: Perspectives on early childhood education. North Shore: New Zealand.
MacArtney, B.(2002) Maggie-Rose: A parent’s story, The First Years: Nga Tau Tuatahi. New Zealand Journal of Infant and Toddler Education, 4(2), 29-31
MacArtney, B. (2009) Understanding and responding to the tensions between deficit discourse and inclusion education, Set, 1, 19-27
Mentis, M., Kearnery, A. & Bevan-Brown, J. (in press). Interprofessional learning as a model for Inclusive Education. In. S. Carrington & J. MacArthur (Eds.) Teaching in Inclusive Communities, John Wiley & Sons, Brisbane
Ministry of Education (2013) Early Intervention Services, Ministry of Education , Retrieved from http://www.minedu.govt.nz/NZEducation/EducationPolicies/SpecialEducation/ServicesAndSupport/EarlyIntervention.aspx
Ministry of Education (1996) Te Whariki; He Whariki Matauranga mo nga Mokopuna o Aotearoa, The Early Childhood Curriculum, Learning Media, Wellington New Zealand
Mitchell, D. (2012). Joined up: A comprehensive, ecological model for working with children with complex needs and their families/whanau: A review of the literature carried out for the New Zealand Ministry of Education. Wellington: Ministry of Education
Orelove, F. P., & Sobsey, D. (1991). Educating children with multiple disabilities: A transdisciplinary approach. Baltimore, MA: Brookes Publishing Co. http://specialistteaching.net.nz/file.php/47/Transdisciplinary_team_Orelove.pdf
Prizant, Wetherby, Rubin & Laurent, (2007) The Scerts Model, SCERTS (2013), Retrieved from http://www.scerts.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2&Itemid=2
Prude, K. (2006) “Special” or Inclusive Education? Children and disability in early childhood education. Early Childhood Folio, 12-15
Smith, M. (1996, 1999) Reflection, Retrieved from http://www.infed.org/biblio/b-reflect.htm
Smith, A. (1998) Understanding Children’s Development 4th edition, Bridget Williams Books Ltd, Wellington, New Zealand
Wegner, E (2006) Communities of Practice a Brief Introduction. Retrieved from www.ewenger.com
YouTube (2011) Beck - Jus Include (Animation on Disability Inclusion) Retrieved from www.youtube.com/watch?v=w1u4RhHfMcY&list=FLNLn4k77uXoVN4vu8vOMtLg&index=53
YouTube (2012) Inclusion, Retrieved from www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y74xmAW7wRA&list=FLNLn4k77uXoVN4vu8vOMtLg&index=69
YouTube (2013) No Kicking or Biting: A Social Story for Asperger/Autistic Kids, Retrieved from from www.youtube.com/watch?v=1AfHPV-YBdI
YouTube (2013) Inclusion is Belonging, Retrieved from www.youtube.com/watch?v=n_qgW9FWEgQ&list=FLNLn4k77uXoVN4vu8vOMtLg&index=62
YouTube (2013) The Purpose of Reflective Practice, Retrieved fromwww.youtube.com/watch?v=1AfHPV-YBdI
"Psychologists can help work out what might be contributing to a child’s difficulty and what support they’ll need. They can help [families] and teachers develop strategies to improve social and other skills" (Ministry of Education, 2013)
D1: Professional Learning & Identity
D2: Culturally Responsive and Effective Practice
D3: Ethical & Reflective Practice
D4: Contextualised Practice
D5: Interprofessional & Evidence-based Practice
D6: Professional Practice
Ensuring Well Being
Creating an Environment of wellness
Meet children at their level
I can build relationship with people
Working with children 0-5 years
from a range of culture and socioeconomic backgrounds
Digital tools for learning
Photo stories/Social stories
Way to support a child learn social skills
Gray & Garand (1993 cited Crozier & Sileo, 2006) state that social stories are a user friendly strategy that can be effective in changing behaviour, it is a proactive intervention to use with children.
Or teach new skills
"A social story is a short simple story written from the perspective of the student that provides instruction on positive, appropriate social behaviors"
(Gray & Garand, 1993 cited Crozier & Sileo, 2006)
Interprofessional practice is defined as "a shared understanding [which] enables teachers and other professionals to work together constructively resulting in effective interprofessional practice. Interprofessional education and interprofessional practice is not just 'team work' it goes deeper than this this to include collaboration and an understanding of a range of perspectives" (Mentis et al, 2002)
Mentis (2012) also states that interprofessional education results in interprofessional practice when professionals learn with, from and about each other and develop a shared understanding of their different practices.
What does it mean?
Learning with, from
and about different specialist areas
Most important thing is respect, respect each other, of difference and of cultures.
Having balanced life style – time for me, time for letting my hair down
Supervision where you can talk to someone about the challenges in life
Child Protection Course
"Its incredibility important in this field"
Routine Based Assessment (RBA)
"“SC” - Social Communication – the development of spontaneous, functional communication, emotional expression, and secure and trusting relationships with children and adults" (SCERTS, 2013)
"“ER” - Emotional Regulation - the development of the ability to maintain a well-regulated emotional state to cope with everyday stress, and to be most available for learning and interacting" (SCERTS, 2013)
"“TS” – Transactional Support – the development and implementation of supports to help partners respond to the child’s needs and interests, modify and adapt the environment, and provide tools to enhance learning (e.g., picture communication, written schedules, and sensory supports). Specific plans are also developed to provide educational and emotional support to families, and to foster teamwork among professionals" (SCERTS, 2013)
Model for working with children that have Autism and their families
acronym “SCERTS” stands for
A model that Group Special
Education is moving towards
process for using the routines of the day to determine what skills a child has and what skills need to be addressed
What is it?
Communities of Practice (COPs)
Early Intervention COP - meet once a month
Psychologists COP that we get together for a day
“Communities of Practice are groups of people who share a concern of a passion for something they do and learn how to do it better as they interact regularly”
“Members of teams in educational psychology are brought together by their shared concern for the development and well-being of children”
(Annan, Bowler, Mentis & Phillipson, 2008)
Let’s support each other
Kia tu tangata, kia tu parkari
A tatou tamariki
Help our tamariki feel good and grow strong
Culturally Responsive Practices
“The manner in which teams are formed and the way in which they operate greatly influence both the process and outcomes of education for children.”
(Orelove& Sobsey, 1991)
Knowledge of Culture
Building Relationships & Partnerships
Very important you need to know about their culture and ways to work with them.
“Children’s learning is fostered if their family, culture, knowledge, and communities are respected, and if there is a strong connection between all aspects of a child’s world”
(Te Whariki, 1996)
GSE has a Kaitakawaenga works with families, communities, and talks to use about their needs and ways and we all work together.
“Kaitakawaenga or Maori cultural adviser can work together with your child’s team and your whanau to assist everyone to work in culturally appropriate and responsive ways”
(Ministry of Education, 2013)
Someone that does not impose their values and beliefs on a different culture.
Someone that does not assume that the way you see something is the way that others see it too.
Making mistakes and not reflecting enough
on the mistakes that you have made.
You need to go through your day, your practices
and reflect on the conversations and work
A Culturally Responsive Practitioner is
Te Whāriki the Early Childhood Curriculum (1996) states
New Zealand is the home of Māori language and culture: curriculum in early childhood settings should promote te reo and ngā tikanga Māori, making them visible and affirming their value for children form all cultural backgrounds. Adults working with children should demonstrate and understand of the different iwi and the meaning of whanau and whānaungatanga. They should as respect the aspirations of parents and families for their children.
Macfarlane (cited Bird & Drewery 2004) state that to understanding the Maori way of life there needs to be an understanding and appreciation of Maori concepts, values, history and traditions.
Most effective and successful strategy for doing this is Empowerment - empowering families to be the experts in their own lives and their children’s lives. This is the most effective strategy.
Mitchell (2012) states that
Parents play an important, if not critical, roles in educating and supporting students with special educational needs. They are first and foremost parents, with all the rights and responsibilities of that role, abut they are also sources of information, partners in designing and implementing programmes for their children, and ‘consumers’ of the education”
Liaise and work alongside cultural liaisons
Learn knowledge and use this
Be respectful and listen
"Working with a Kaitakawaenga allows me to make sure that I am valuing and providing for the families beliefs through him we can understand and respect views, learning more about the families culture and ask questions. Its wonderful."
Ethical dilemmas strategies
Supervision is important
Code of Ethics, Policy and Legislation that guides practice
What is Inclusion for children with
"having someone to talk to as soon as an
issue arises or something happens"
Be clear &define 'rules' and 'limitations'
"It is important to really be clear and define the rules and limitations to confidentiality. Make sure you define the rules when working with parents, and clearly outline these. Parents need to be aware of the limitations to confidentiality as well especially around any aspects of safety for the child."
An ethical dilemma is a complex situation that involves a conflict between different morals
No models of Ethical Dilemma Response
GSE policies and procedures
EI policies and practices
Respect for dignity of persons and people - each person and all peoples are positively valued in their own right, and are shown respect and granted dignity as part of their common humanity. Respect requires sensitivity to cultural and social diversity and recognition that there are differences.
Responsible caring - practice promotes well-being. Through the demonstration of active concern for the welfare of those with whom they work and acknowledge the social and institutional power that structures their role as psychologists. Psychologists have a primary responsibility to protect the welfare of those with whom they work.
Integrity in Relationships - embody explicit and mutual expectations of integrity that are vital to the advancement of social justice, scientific knowledge, and to the maintenance of public confidence in the discipline of psychology.
Social Justice and Responsibility to Society - discipline to promote the wellbeing of society. Psychologists, both as individuals and as a group, have responsibilities to the community and to society in general. The principle of Social Justice is about acknowledging psychologists’ position of power and influence in relation both to individuals and groups within communities where the psychologist is involved, and in the broader context. It is about addressing and challenging unjust societal norms and behaviours that disempower people at all levels of interaction.
(Code of Ethics Review Group, 2002).
Psychologist Code of Ethics: Principles Based
Dewey (1933 cited Smith, 1996, 1999) defines Reflection as
“active, persistent, and careful consideration of any belief or supposed form of knowledge in the light of the grounds that support it and the further conclusions to which it tends”.
New concept that needs to be done, researched and refined more.
There needs to be more training around it, especially for teachers and more resources to be committed to inclusion.
Training & Resources
Psychologists reflect annually
At the start of each year
Go into supervision
Review my goals
Reflect on these goals at the end of the year
Set new goals for the next year
"You do not even see these in South Africa"
The work of Ballard, Booth & Ainscow (cited in Purdue 2006) inclusive education “is about identifying and removing barriers that get in the way of a child’s full acceptance, participation, and learning, so that all children receive high-quality, inclusive early educational experiences”.
“Inclusion means the acceptance of differences and valuing individuals for who they are, not for what they can do in academic or other areas” (Smith, 1998)
"training is important for teachers as well as resources need to be deepened, more attention that is individual means more teacher aides in the classroom, teachers need to have support in their classrooms."
“Reflective practice involves thoughtfully considering one’s own experiences in applying knowledge to practice while being coached by professionals in the discipline (Schon, 1996)
Model of Disability
Very much the social model of disability
You are different,
we are different,
but we are able
to work together
“Educational psychologists do not act alone in exploring learning context or in developing intervention plans. They work in collaboration”
(Annan, Bowler, Mentis & Phillipson, 2008)
“Collaborative team work requires that members understand each other’s perspectives and develop shared goals for intervention”
(Annan, Bowler, Mentis & Phillipson, 2008)
Bring different skills to the table.
Important features of your role
History, policies and practices of
+ve and -ve
Focusing on development, behaviour and emotional development
difficulties that happening with children
NZ disability Strategy Special Education 2000 Education Act 1989
Child can reach their full potential
It challenges the child more
Children also learn how to accommodate, become more tolerant and accepting of differences.
Teachers will work in different ways of working and expand their knowledge and experiences.
Resources and skills of people working with the children.
Lack of training so all teachers know how to work with the specific needs of each individual child
Lack of Professional development to understand the nature of disability
Strategies in Practice
Inform the practices of
Whats need to happen for the future?
Tools for Assessment
Challenge & Barriers
Bring all the parties together to develop and individualized plan that supports child
Working with SENCO, teachers, child, family and Early Childhood teachers.
Not enough staff
Appropriate assessment tools especially children, can learn through experts – family and teachers.
Feedback from teachers and parents and of course the when you start the intervention plan.
Capturing child's voice through
Background of therapy assessment tools
EI tools are Cognitive/Emotional
Interview and Observations
Ages, stages questionnaires
Social Emotional questionnaires
AEPS – assessment, evaluation, program assessment for young children
FBA – functional behaviour analysis
Most effective strategy and the most dominant one - Assessment
It is very important in my practice sharing knowledge – we work as a team on all our cases – constantly talking and drawing on knowledge.
Special Education Adviser
Speech Language Therapists
Health and Paediatricians
Different centres – Occupational Therapists & Psychologists
Nuero Development Staff
Experiences of working with children with disability – learning through practices and university training
Practical learning about Complex Needs
“The social model separates the terms disability and impairment…it is society that disables individuals with ‘impairments’ by creating barriers to learning, full participation and respect. It shifts the causes and experiences of disability from the ‘deficient’ individual to the social construction of disability, and the works of oppressive and disabling barriers in society” (Macartney, 2009)
He iwi kē koutou,
he iwi kē matou,
Engari I tenei wa,
tatou, tatou, e
"We utilize each other’s skills, knowledge and are not possessive of our knowledge we share it if people are possessive of their knowledge then nothing gets done we have to all learn from each other".
Work within a multidisciplinary team
“Open and honest sharing of ideas, knowledge and skills can lead to a more collaborative team process and result in better services for the child”
Multidisciplinary team “utilizes the expertise of
professionals from several disciplines each of
whom usually performs his
or her assessments, interventions, and
other task independently of the others….”
(Gargiulo & Metcalf, 2010)
Woodruff (1998 cited in Orelove et al, 1991) provide a
useful comparison of three team models
H.P.C.A – Psychology Professional Standards
MOE guidelines and policies
"because it is not all the same way"
"So things like the child getting lost
in the classroom does not happen"
It is “the things teachers do that give meaning to the concept of inclusion”
Te Whariki, the New Zealand Early Childhood Curriculum (1996) states that the needs of all children will be meet as children learn together in all kinds of settings, the curriculum is designed to inclusive and each child and their family will be valued.
“Theories of development have played an important role in early childhood education. It has long been accepted that the perspective we take on child development frames our practice”
“Developing an inclusive mindset, inclusive schools and classrooms require teachers who are knowledgeable, and who are able to employ are range of effective pedagogies that meet the needs of diverse student population”
(Carrington & MacArthur, 2012)
"For me it is important not to use just one it is important for me to use a variety of strategies, informal, formal, interviews and observations."
"I think it is also important to tap into your own different experiences as an assessment tool as well as use a variety of different assessment tools depending on the individual needs of the child. Also, gather information from teachers these are often the experts."
“Assessment doesn’t have to be a tick on
paper in a box”
(Ministry of Education, 2009)
“Successfully meeting the needs of learner's with special needs requires collaborative relationships and cooperation between and among a wide range of professionals as well as parents”
(Gargiulo & Metcalf, 2010)
“Narrative Assessment recounts learning events within and beyond schools settings, going further than simply describing. It tells the story of learning by capturing the context, the people, the places, and the things of relevance. IT identifies the ways in which learning has been noticed, recognised and responded to”
(Cowie and Bell, 1999 cited (Ministry of Education, 2009)
Working collectively with children because we can’t take
the child out of the environment and do intense work
with they need to be in the environment.
Caseload & Time - many cases/lack of resources
Is very important and a major part of the job
"For me they all need to be involved in this to ensure the smooth transition to school"
Docket (2011) highlights that effective and successful transition to schools for families can only occur when there are strong and complementary supports in place.
Thoughts to leave you with
Mahia nga mahi o nga tamariki
Hei apopo ka tu Hei Rangatira
Fulfill the needs of our children and tomorrow they stand strong