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Ch. 1: The World Before the Opening of the Atlantic

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John Kennedy

on 31 August 2017

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Transcript of Ch. 1: The World Before the Opening of the Atlantic

Chapter 1: The World Before the Opening of the Atlantic
I. The Earliest Americans
III. Trading Kingdoms of West Africa
IV. Europe Before Transatlantic Travel
II. Native American Cultures
A. First Migration to the Americas
Last Ice Age caused oceans to freeze up
Ocean levels dropped, creating the Bering Land Bridge
Paleo-Indians migrated between 38,000-10,000 BC
they were hunter-gatherers following herds of animals
B. Early Mesoamerican & South American Societies
1) Olmec
earliest known civilization in Mesoamerica (1200 BC)
built 1st pyramids in the Americas
culture spread through trade
2) Maya
grew maize & other crops
built cities, pyramids, palaces, bridges, canals
civilization collapsed around 900 AD--not sure how or why
3) Aztec
warrior society
capital city Tenochtitlan was one of the world's largest cities
most powerful state in Mesoamerica
4) Inca
began as a small tribe in the Andes
capital city was Cuzco
empire stretched along most the pacific coast
had an advanced road system which enabled them to communicate & control their large empire
A. Early Societies
1. Anasazi
1500 BC - 1300 AD
lived in the 4 corners of the West
grew maize & used irrigation
lived in Pueblos & houses in cliff dwellings
good for defense & to stay cool
2. Mound Builders
1000 BC - 1700 AD
lived along river systems
built burial mounds to honor their dead
over 10,000 in Ohio River Valley
C. Shared Beliefs
1. Religion linked to nature
2. Ceremonies were part of the culture
3. Land was shared & should be preserved for future generations
4. Many diverse groups
5. Did not form large empires like the Aztec or Inca
B. Native American Culture Areas
1. North & Northwest
relied on gaming animals & fishing
totems of great importance
potlatches are unique to this area
2. West & Southwest
had to adapt to the dry region - irrigation
some tribes were nomadic
3. Great Plains
nomadic hunters (buffalo)
used teepees as shelters
some matrilineal societies
4. Northeast & Southeast
rich land enabled them to live in farming societies
some tribes formed the Iroquis League
became the most powerful Native American people
West Africa's Great Kingdoms
1. Kingdom of Ghana

ideally located to become a trading center (salt & gold)
wealth led to power, which allowed them to control the trade routes
forced other traders to pay taxes
created a strong army & an empire
2. Islam of Ghana
trade brought them in contact with many different cultures, including the Arabians from the east who were Muslims
Islam founded by Muhammed in the 600's
Almoravids attacked Ghana to force Islam on them
empire would eventually collapse & Islam became the most practiced religion
3. Kingdom of Mali
developed along the fertile Niger River
controlled trade & became wealthy
Mansa Musa ruled 1312-1327
added trade cities
hajj to Mecca introduced world to Mali kingdom
spread Islam
made reading/writing important, to be able to read the Qur'an
built mosques
empire began to decline once he died
4. Songhai Empire
empire began when Mali collapsed
Askia the Great
created a professional army
created provinces
created specialized departments
it too fell after their leader's death
700 BC-600 AD
A. Greek & Roman Government
1. Greek Philosophers & Government
Socrates, Plato, Aristotle
demos = people kratia = rule (democracy)
2. Roman Law & Government
elected officials
believed in equality & innocent until proven guilty
B. Middle Ages
1. Feudalism
nobles couldn't depend on the king for protection, had to protect their own land
knights protected nobles - Feudalism
Catholic church was the unifying force
2. The Crusades
war between Christians & Muslims over holy lands
increased trade & introduced Europe to new products & ideas
3. Travel, Trade, and Towns
better technology = more food = more people = bigger cities
Silk Road and other trade routes (Marco Polo)
the Black Death killed an estimated 25 million people between 1348-1350
C. Renaissance ("rebirth")
1. Search for Knowledge
emphasized the importance of people & less on religion (humanism)
artists Michelangelo & Leonardo da Vinci
advances in science, literature, math
Johannes Gutenberg printing press caused the spread of education
2. Economic Changes Affect Trade
mercantilism increased the power & wealth of a nation
manufacturing boom created more trade cities
led to the need for banks (Medici family)
joint-stock companies allowed people to invest more with less risk
Additional Clips
Mansa Musa
The Crusades
Black Death
The Renaissance
Full transcript