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Effective Lesson Design and Backwards Design
Transcript of Effective Lesson Design and Backwards Design
Effective Lesson Planning and Backwards Design
EDU 650: Teaching Learning and Leading in the 21st Century
Kimberly A Smith
March 10th, 2014
Elements of Effective Lesson Planning
Characteristics of Good Learning Objectives
The Importance of Good Learning Objectives
The three essential elements to effective lesson planning are goals, objectives, and assessments....
And connecting the combined goals, objectives and assessments to students' lives (Newman, 2013).
Avoiding the Pitfalls
1. Teachers Perception of What Learning Is- Looking at learning as a combination of students' life experiences, assessments, intended goals of learning, and cognitive academic processes rather than looking at these factors as separate entities (Newman, 2013).
Example: Learning Objective
Common Pitfalls In Planning Effective Lessons
Purpose of the Common Core Standards Initiative
Traditional vs Backwards Design
Stage One: Desired Results
Stage 2: Assessment and Evidence
Stage 3: Backwards Design
Good learning objectives come first and are most important, specific, clear, complete, and measurable (Newman, 2013).
Not A Learning Objective:
Students will read Chapter 2 and 3 of their textbooks and answers the questions preceding each chapter.
A Learning Objective:
Students will be able to analyze the similarities and differences in the life cycles between amphibians and insects.
1. Spending more time on planning lesson activities that are "hands on" than on planning lesson objectives resulting in the activities not effectively meeting the learning objectives.
2. Quantity over quality- teachers want to cover as much content as possible instead of focusing on a "clear purpose" (Newman, 2013)
2. Collaboration- Working with a team of teachers to brainstorm ideas to connect learning with real life making learning memorable and relevant rather than just memorization of facts (Newman, 2013).
3. Reflection- Taking time to decide what students should learn and basing activities on those ideas (Newman, 2013).
1. Brings individual states to a common ground of what students need to learn
2. Focuses on not only what students need to learn, but also how students learn
3. Adds the element of 21st century skill standards
4. Adds skills to create college ready students (Newman, 2013).
Lesson Planning Process
Backwards by Design Approach
There are three steps to backwards design:
1. Identify desired results- Define the learning objectives or the desired skills students should learn (Wiggins & McTighe, 1998).
2. Determine acceptable evidence- Create assessment to determine if objectives have been learned (Wiggins & McTighe, 1998).
3. Plan learning experiences and instruction-Decide and plan the activities that will assist students in gaining the desired objectives effectively (Wiggins & McTighe, 1998).
Three Stages of Backward Mapping Plan
1. Choose the Common Core Standard to base your objective on. Reflect on what students will understand, will be able to do, will know, and open ended questions regarding this content
2. Design performance tasks that can be assessed for understanding
3. Plan activities using the WHERETO acronym (Newman, 2013).
This lesson plan is an example of the backwards design model intended for a second grade class to learn several literacy goals while integrating life science content including life cycles of different animal species while practicing and applying 21st century skills of critical thinking and problem solving.
CCSS.ELA- Literacy.R1.2.3 Describe the connection between historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text.
CCS ELA-Literacy.RI.2.6 Identify the main purpose of a text, including what the author wants to answer, explain, or describe.
CCS.ELA-Literacy.RI.2.9 Compare and contrast the most important points presented by two texts on the same topic.
Students will be able to:
Students will understand that:
Students will know:
Compare and contrast similar topics.
Analyze diagrams and picture models.
Develop original diagrams to represent information or content.
Identify the main concepts and purpose of text.
Describe scientific ideas.
Define key vocabulary associated with metamorphosis.
Life cycles of different animal and plant species
Concept of metamorphosis
Concept of sequence
Diagram analysis and creation.
Information can be presented in word or picture form through the use of diagrams and models.
Metamorphosis is a physical change in the life cycle process of certain animals.
Defining the main purpose of a text helps identify the message of the author.
Diagrams assist in organizing information in a certain organization order.
What other kind of information can be shown in a diagram form?
Why do you think some animals experience metamorphosis and some do not?
How do we find the main purpose in a selected set of text?
Do you think humans experience metamorphosis? Why or why not?
Powerpoint Presentation on Metamorphosis
Written letter to other small groups on the metamorphic process of their designated animal or plant.
Small Group Dramatic Reenactment of Life Cycles
Summary typed and emailed to the teacher on the story The Very Hungry Caterpillar.
Worksheet completed individually identifying the vocabulary terms for the life style stages. Worksheet for individual child will be relevant to the animal or plant they are assigned to in small groups.
Nature's Life Cycle Objective Assessment
"Children need opportunities to connect their prior knowledge and experiences through their own thought processes and through interaction with others and their environment. Teacher understanding of the difference between student knowledge and student understanding is critical to implementing a backwards design approach." (Childre, Sands, & Pope, 2009, pg 2)
"A learning objective deals with a very specific item of knowledge: educational content, a 'good problem' to be solved through group work or evaluation exercises, etc. Learning objects should be self- contained and can be combined to support individual instructional objectives for use in different contexts." (Alonzo, Lopez, Manrique, & Vines, 2008, pg 391)
Colorado Core Knowledge Assessments. Second Grade. "Cycles in Nature-Life Cycles Assessment. Retrieved from http://www.coreknowledge.org/mimik/mimik uploads/lesson plans/1582/2 CyclesNatureLife.pdf. on March 8th, 2014.
Childre, A., Sands, J., & Pope, S. (2009). Backward Design: Targeting Depth of Understanding for All Learners. Teaching the Exceptional Child. 41(5). pgs6-14.
Alonso, F., Lopez, G., Manrique, D., & Vines, J. (2008). Learning objects, learning objectives, and learning design. Innovations in Education & Teaching International. 45(4). pgs 389-400.
Wiggins, G. & McTighe J. (1998). What is backwards design. Retrieved from http://www.ubdexchange.org/resources/backwards.html.
Newman, R. (2013). Teaching and learning in the 21st century: Coonnecting the dots. San Diego, CA. Bridgeport Edu.Inc.
Farrell, F. (2008). Secrets of Great Lessons No 1: Objectives. Retrieved from www.youtube.com/watch?v=XpjYwf0Vv3o
Kershaw, K. (2013). What is backwards design? Retrieved from www.youtube.com/watch?v=3Xzi2cm9WYg.
Backwards design is an alternative approach to the traditional method that allows for thorough planning before the development of the lesson plan activities begin. This allows a teacher to accurately choose a variety of activities that will meet the objective rather than just activities according to a theme, chapter in a book, or a chosen standard. It combines the reflection of what the children will know and understand, planning for critical thinking and the use of technology, and strategy for assessing the effectiveness of the lesson.
Where is the lesson going? Where are the students coming from?
The lesson is heading towards students understanding real life concepts of biology using the life cycles of various plants and animals in their process of metamorphosis using diagrams, images, technology, critical thinking, and the writing process.
How will we HOOK the students?
The hook will be created through the care of real animals and plants and observation of their metamorphic process.
How will we EQUIP the students to EXPLORE the subject in depth to perform successfully on the final assignment?
Reading of The Very Hungry Caterpillar and discussing the main points of the story will allow check for prior knowledge and understanding on the subject of metamorphosis and life cycles.
Provide and opportunity for students to RETHINK and REVISE the big idea.
Group work on the assigned plant or animal will allow students to rethink, revise, and brainstorm their ideas.
EVALUATE results and develop action plans through self-assessment of results.
Performance assessments, informal assessments, group and individual assignments allow for checking for level of understanding to alter lesson activities as needed.
TAILORED (personalized) to the students' interests and needs.
Differentiated instruction through the use of group and individual work, technology, and lessons fostered to different learning styles.
ORGANIZE to ensure maximum engagement.
Sources and materials gathered, computers checked for operational use, live materials ordered and scheduled for delivery, all survival materials for live materials purchased, room organized for arrival of live materials, project shared with students.