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Transcript of Psychology Prezi
J. Ridley Stroop
John B. Watson
Lev Vygotsky William Wundt: Herman Ebbinghaus August 16th, 1832- Augst 31st, 1920 "Physiology and psychology cover, between them, the field of vital phenomena; they deal with the facts of life at large, and in particular with the facts of human life" Wilhelm Wundt was a German psychologist, born in Neckarau, Baden. From 1851-56, he studied at University of Tübingen, University of Berlin, and the University of Heidelberg. After graduating from the University of Heidelberg in 1856 he joined their staff as an assistant to Hermann von Helmholtz, physicist and physiologist. Wundt is known as the father of experimental psychology, and in 1879 he founded the first laboratory for psychological research at the University of Leipzig. His philosophies moved psychology towards the direction of experimentation, rather than reliance on philosophy and natural sciences. Wundt became focused on the study of physiology in psychology, such as reaction times and bodily processes. Wundt sought to study conscious mental states through introspection, or self examination. One major contribution from Wilhelm Wundt's work was to illustrate psychology as legitimate experimental science. JJanuary 24th, 1850-February 26th, 1909 "No matter how thoroughly a person may have learned the Greek alphabet, he will never be in a condition to repeat it backwards without further training" Ebbinghaus was a German psychologist most known for his contribution to the study of memory and learning. He was born Barmen, Germany. In 1867 he began attending the University of Bonn, but his studies were interrupted in 1870 when he served in the Prussian Army in the Franco-Prussian War. When he returned, he finished his dissertation on Eduard von Hartmann’s "Philosophy of the Unconscious." Ebbbingaus's biggest contributions were his experinental studies of learning and forgetting. First, he founded the "forgetting curve," the model that illustrates the exponential loss of information once it has been learned. Secondly, his "learning curve" modeled the exponential rate at which information is learned. In both curves, the losing and gaining of information levels off after steep growth, meaning one continues to learn and forget but not at as high of a rate. Ebbinghaus also theorized that information can be remembered in ones subconscious, meaning that even if information cannot be accessed it is still evident in the subconscious of the mind. J. Ridley Stroop M March 21st, 1897-September 1st, 1973 John Ridley Stroop was an american psychologist born in Rutherford County, Tennessee. His most famous work was his study on the interference of attention. The test that he is most known for his the Stroop test, which asks participants to say the color of a word that spells out a different color. This test tested the effect of two different stimuli, one that reads what the word says and the other that can say the actual color. Because participants had a slower reaction time in announcing the colors of those words compared announcing colors of non-words, it was concluded that the mind was distracted by the semantic meaning of the word, (the actual spelling and pronunciation), so rather than an immediate response the brain had to check itself to make sure it was saying the color not the word, slowing the reaction time as a result to interference on attention. John B. Watson January 9th, 1878-September 25th, 1958 "Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I’ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select—doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief and, yes, even beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors." John B. Watson was an American psychologist born in Travelers Rest, South Carolina. Watson is most known for his beliefs in behaviorism, as he used psychology to study actions and the ability to predict and control them. His views on behaviorism were seen as radical and "anti-mental." His views were simplistic and were reduced to the idea that implicit response could explain most behavior. Watson believed that behavior could be reduced to the relationship between a stimulus and a response. Originally his studies were on animals, but in later years he used humans as subjects. His studies often involved the conditioning of a certain response, and the most famous example is his Little Albert experiment. In this experiment he wanted to condition a reaction of fear in a child by showing the child a rat, accompanied by a sudden, loud noise to scare him. Through classical conditioning, the child remained afraid of the rat even when the loud noise was absent. Watson's behaviorism theorized the learned behavior like this, rather than innate behavior, was the main factor in all behavior. In 1913, Watson published "Psychology as the Behaviourist Views It," explaining his behaviorist psychology B.F. Skinner
March 20, 1904 – August 18, 1990 "A failure is not always a mistake, it may simply be the best one can do under the circumstances. The real mistake is to stop trying" Skinner was born in Susquehanna, Pennsylvania to William and Grace Skinner. His father was a lawyer. He became an atheist after a liberal Christian teacher tried to assuage his fear of the Hell that his grandmother described.While attending, he joined Lambda Chi Alpha Fraternity. He wrote for the school paper, but as an atheist, he was critical of the religious school he attended. He also attended Harvard University after receiving his B.A. in English literature in 1926. After graduation, he spent a year at his parents' home in Scranton attempting to become a writer of fiction. He tried to become a writer in Greenwich Village. He soon became disillusioned with his literary skills and concluded that he had little world experience and no strong personal perspective from which to write. His encounter with John B. Watson's Behaviorism led him into graduate study in psychology and to the development of his own operant behaviorism. Skinner called his particular brand of behaviorism "Radical" behaviorism. Radical behaviorism is Skinner believed that behavior is maintained from one condition to another through similar or same consequences across these situations. In short, behaviors are causal factors that are influenced by the consequences. His contribution to the understanding of behavior influenced many other scientists to explain social behavior and contingenciesthe philosophy of the science of behavior. It seeks to understand behavior as a function of environmental histories of reinforcing consequences. Such a functional analysis makes it capable of producing technologies of behavior. Unlike less austere behaviorisms, it does not accept private events such as thinking, perceptions, and unobservable emotions in a causal account of an organism's be. Noam Chromsky December 7, 1928....83 years old "The intellectual tradition is one of servility to power, and if I didn't betray it I'd be ashamed of myself." Avram Noam Chomsky was born on 7 December 1928 in the affluent East Oak Lane neighborhood of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. His father, Dr. William "Zev" Chomsky had been born in Ukraine, then a part of the Russian Empire, but had fled to the United States in 1913 to avoid conscription into the army. A graduate of Central High School of Philadelphia, Chomsky began studying philosophy and linguistics at the University of Pennsylvania in 1945, taking classes with philosophers such as C. West Churchman and Nelson Goodman and linguist Zellig Harris. Chomskyan linguistics, beginning with his Syntactic Structures, a distillation of his Logical Structure of Linguistic Theory , challenges structural linguistics and introduces transformational grammar.This approach takes utterances (sequences of words) to have a syntax characterized by a formal grammar; in particular, a context-free grammar extended with transformational rules.Perhaps his most influential and time-tested contribution to the field is the claim that modeling knowledge of language using a formal grammar accounts for the "productivity" or "creativity" of language. In other words, a formal grammar of a language can explain the ability of a hearer-speaker to produce and interpret an infinite number of utterances, including novel ones, with a limited set of grammatical rules and a finite set of terms. He has always acknowledged his debt to Pāini for his modern notion of an explicit generative grammar, although it is also related to rationalist ideas of a priori knowledge.Chomskyan models have been used as a theoretical basis in various fields of study. The Chomsky hierarchy is often taught in fundamental computer science courses as it confers insight into the various types of formal languages. This hierarchy can also be discussed in mathematical terms and has generated interest among mathematicians, particularly combinatorialists. Some arguments in evolutionary psychology are derived from his research results.The 1984 Nobel Prize laureate in Medicine and Physiology, Niels K. Jerne, used Chomsky's generative model to explain the human immune system, equating "components of a generative grammar ... with various features of protein structures". The title of Jerne's Stockholm Nobel lecture was "The Generative Grammar of the Immune System". Ebbinghaus and Stroop can both be considered cognitive psychologists, as they both study mental processes like memory and attention Skinner's work was inspired by Watson's studies. Max Wertheimer April 15, 1880 – October 12, 1943 Max Wertheimer was a Prague-born psychologist who was one of the three founders of Gestalt psychology, along with Kurt Koffka and Wolfgang Köhler.The three conducted experiments to test their theories. In these early years he met many influential people including Carl Jung and Albert Einstein. He served as professor of psychology at the University of Frankfurt from 1929 - 1933, and migrated to the United States in 1933.He joined the faculty of the New School for Social Research in New York City and remained there for ten years. In 1943 he finished his work on "productive thinking" and died in New Rochelle, NY that same year. Wertheimer was the core of the trio of early German Gestalt Theorists. His ideas featured the view that thinking proceeds from the whole to the parts, treating a problem as a whole, and permitting the whole to command or dominate over the parts. This was a synthesis approach rather than an analytical approach. Wertheimer thought reductionism was a fundamental problem of his time; he was particularly interested in the nature of problem solving.Gestalt theory had a central idea of "grouping", or aspects of visual and other stimuli which cause the subject to interpret a problem or perceptual event in a certain way. Grouping factors included proximity, elements that are close in space tend to be grouped together and perceived as one or a few objects, similarity, items that have some similar characteristics tend to be grouped, closure, elements which appear to complete some shape or object tend to be grouped, and simplicity, the tendency to organize objects into simple figures. These factors were called the "Laws of Organization". November 17, 1896 -June 11, 1934 Through others we become ourselves. Lev Vygotsky In 1913 Vygotsky was admitted to the Moscow State University through a "Jewish Lottery" to meet a three percent Jewish student quota for entry in Moscow and Saint Petersberg universities. There he studied law, but his thirst for knowledge pushed him to enroll in the "unofficial" "Shanyavskii People’s University". His early interests were in the arts and he aspired to be a literary critic, fascinated with the structuralist revolution of his time.Upon graduation in 1917, Vygotsky returned to Gomel, where he lived when the October Socialist Revolution of 1917 happened. The immediate consequence of this for Vygotsky was that he could take up teaching, "a profession he was now able to practice due to the abolition of the anti-Semitic legislation"and publish "copies of great literary works".Vygotsky investigated child development and the important roles of cultural mediation and interpersonal communication. He observed how higher mental functions developed through these interactions also represented the shared knowledge of a culture. This process is known as internalization. Less known is Vygotsky's research on play, or children's games, as a psychological phenomenon and its role in the child's development. Through play the child develops abstract meaning separate from the objects in the world, which is a critical feature in the development of higher mental functions. Perhaps Vygotsky's most important contribution concerns the inter-relationship of language development and thought. This concept, explored in Vygotsky's book Thought and Language, establishes the explicit and profound connection between speech, and the development of mental concepts and cognitive awareness. Vygotsky described inner speech as being qualitatively different from normal speech. Although Vygotsky believed inner speech developed from external speech via a gradual process of internalization, with younger children only really able to "think out loud," he claimed that in its mature form inner speech would be unintelligible to anyone except the thinker, and would not resemble spoken language as we know it. Hence, thought itself develops socially Skinner and Vygotsky both studied other types of mental processes, as Skinner was big on things like communication and Vygotsky focused on higher mental functions. Watson and Wundt both used experimental technique in their research Stroop and Wertheimer both researched aspects of problem solving Vygotsky and Watson were both behaviorists in the sense that they believed in learned rather than innate behavior. Chromsky and Vygostky both studies language Watson and Skinner were both radical behaviorists