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Oil Spill and its Effects

English4 Presentation
by

Miho Ogura

on 20 November 2012

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Transcript of Oil Spill and its Effects

Background photo by t.shigesa Contingency Plans Introduction Transportation Dealing with Oil Spills Oil Spill & its Effects Increasing Oil Spills in the World Miho Ogura 2083955 Significant impacts of oil spills
The Effects on Coral Reefs and Human Societies
The Reason of increasing oil spills in the world
Possible suggestions to improve responses toward to future oil spills (Oil Spill News 2010) (Oil Spill News 2010) Nutrients Recycling and Energy Flow Economical Benefits The Importance of Coral Reefs Involving in oxygen supplies on the earth Providing various resources and habits for thousands of species in the marine ecosystem Contributing to local and national economics Coral Reefs = Rainforests of the sea Surrounding Water = Nutrients Desert Photosynthesis is a fundamental system for energy and nutrients cycles in the coral reef ecosystems In photosynthesis, various kinds of organisms like bacteria are involving NO3- NO2- NH3
NH4- NO2- N2 N2O Nitrification Nitrification Denitrification Nitrate ammonification Dissimilatory nitrate reduction 1 2 3 Nitrogen Cycle Contributes both local and national economies Tourism + Fisheries (ex. Belize and the U.S) Belize (Worldatlas, n.d) 10-15% of national gross domestics products (GDP) Over 500,000 new divers certificated in 2008 Provide various kinds of jobs and businesses (hotels, restaurants, diving shops) (Brake 2011) The U.S local economy can earn billion of dollars from visitors by business done near coral reefs annually over $100 million from commercial fisheries in coral reeds $100 million by recreational fisheries in the coral reefs Oil spills can be happened in three situations Extraction
Transportation
War the size of tank-ship is becoming bigger In 1886- each ship carried 2,800 tons
In 1942-became 16,800 tons
In 1968- up to 312,000 tons
Now......- over one billion it is more difficult to handle and maintain bigger ship 6 millions of tons of oil spill globally The Impacts of Oil Contamination on Coral Reefs The Ways of Oil Contamination in Coral Reefs Case Study : Great Barrier Reef Conclusion 3 ways Oil at surface Dispersed drops by waves Oil-polluted sediments Deterioration in Reproductive System Experiment A (Sea Water) B (Oil Polluted Sea Water) (the Atlantic 2011) (the Atlantic 2011) (the Atlantic 2011) (the Atlantic 2011) (the Atlantic 2011) (the Atlantic 2011) Result After two months later...... Coral Reef in Tank B has extremely low female gonads 75 % of them are polluted by oil Oil has a serious detrimental effect on coral reef reproductive system (jaunted 2008) (Collins 2012) The largest coral reefs in the world Attract a huge number of visitors every year April, 2010 (Nolan 2012) Chinese tank-ship ran aground in the Great Barrier Reef where commercial shipping is banned rigorously Two tons of oils had leaked + 3km oil slick around the ship Oil Spills were caused by lack of monitoring Problem was not just oil but also anti-fouling paint, which is used for ship's surface Training Purpose speed up the responses Plans should include...... Specific plans according to location
Typical scenarios and actions for technical actions (introducing chemical)
Responses teams + the way of communication each other
Operation Protocols
The procedures of notifying the incident to public (Glockson 2009) Operating equipment to clean up oils requires special skills Essential + Effective to Train Personnel Purpose Reduce the risks of injuries
Speed up their responses (Great Barrier Reef oil spill probed 2010) Reference List Aqua Guard, 2008. Available from: < http://www.aquaguard.com/images/imo_cropped.jpg>. [12 November 2012].

‘Chinese Oil Spill Threatens Australia's Great Barrier Reef’ 2010, Voice of America 4 April. Available from: <http://www.voanews.com/content/chinese-oil-spill-threatens-australias-great-barrier-reef-89916382/115300.html >. [11 November 2012].

Collins, B 2012. Available from <http://minnesota.publicradio.org/collections/special/columns/news_cut/archive/2012/03/the_oil_spill_that_keeps_on_ki.shtml>.[16 November 2012].

Fingas, M 2011, Oil Spill Science and Technology, Elsevier, New York.

Glockson 2009. Available from:
< http://www.sunsetroyale.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2009/03/contingency-plan.jpg>. [12 November 2012].


‘Great Barrier Reef oil spill probed’ 2010. Available from:
<http://www.cbc.ca/news/world/story/2010/04/06/australia-reef-ship-investigation.html>. [11 November 2012].


Haapkyla, J, Ramade, F & Salvat, B 2007. Available from:
<www.obs-banyuls.fr/Viemilieu/index.../download.html>. [11 November 2012].


Haapkyla, J, Ramade, F & Salvat, B 2007, “Oil Pollution on Coral Reefs: A Review of The State of Knowledge and Management Needs”, Life and Environment, vol. 57, pp. 91-107. Available from: <www.obs-banyuls.fr/Viemilieu/index.../download.html>. [11 November 2012].


Hanson, C 2011, ‘Case for saving coral reefs is economic as well as conservational’, theguardian 7 March. Available from:
<http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2011/mar/07/case-for-saving-coral-reefs-is-economic>. [11 November 2012].

Hutchings, P, Kingsford, M & Hoegh-Guldberg, O 2008, The Great Barrier Reef: Biology, Environment and Management, CRISO Publishing, Collingwood.

Jaunted 2008. Available from: <http://www.jaunted.com/story/2008/11/13/81446/773/travel/Can+Britain%92s+Coral+Farmers+Save+The+Maldives%3F>. [16 November 2012].

Noaa Ocean Service Education 2010. Available from: <http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/tutorial_corals/media/supp_coral02a.html>. [20 November 2012].

Noaa Coral Reef Conservation Program 2011. Available from:
< http://coralreef.noaa.gov/aboutcorals/facts/coral_economy.html>. [11 November 2012].

Noaa Coral Reef Conservation Program 2011, Coral reefs support jobs, tourism, and fisheries. Available from:<http://coralreef.noaa.gov/aboutcorals/facts/coral_economy.html>. [11 November 2012].

Nolan, K 2012. Available from: <http://www.news.com.au/national/great-barrier-reef-oil-spill-would-cost-billions/story-fndo4eg9-1226444874316>.[16 November 2012].

Nelson-Smith, A 1972, Oil Pollution and Marine Ecology, Elek Science, London.
Oil Spill News 2010. Available from: <http://www.oilspillnews.net/bp-oil-spill-news/bp-oil-spill-update-%e2%80%93-cap-stops-oil-flow-into-gulf-of-mexico/>. [16 November 2012].

Oil Spill News 2010. Available from: <http://www.oilspillnews.net/oil-spill-clean-up/bp-oil-spill-oil-containment-system-appears-operational/>. [16Novemberr 2012].

Rosenberg, E & Loya, Y 2004, Coral Health and Disease, Springer, New York.

the Atlantic 2011. Available from: <http://www.theatlantic.com/infocus/2011/04/the-gulf-oil-disaster-one-year-later/100049/>. [16 November 2012].

The Great Barrier Reef n.d. Available from: <http://www.greatbarrierreef.org/about.php>. [16 November 2012]. (The Great Barrier Reef, n.d) Coral Reefs are crucial for all organisms and the earth Vital components to enhance economies in local and national level in some countries Every year, a huge amount of oil is released (Ex. the Great Barrier Reef) Oil Spill is an urgent topic (Hutchings, Kingsford & Hoegh-Guldberg 2008) (Hutchings, Kingsford & Hoegh-Guldberg 2008) (Hanson 2011) (Noaa Coral Reef Conservation Program 2011) (Nelson-Smith) (Haaokyla, Ramade & Salvat 2007) (Haaokyla, Ramade & Salvat 2007) (Rosenberg & Loya 2004) (Chinese Oil Spill Threatens Australia's Great Barrier Reef 2010) (Great Barrier Reef island oil spill clean-up starts 2010). (Fingas 2011)
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