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THE BOSNIAN CONFLICT
Transcript of THE BOSNIAN CONFLICT
Muslims or Bosniaks
Roman Empire: Christianity, Catholicism
Byzantine Empire: Christianity, Orthodox
Ottoman Empire: Islam
Early Map (mid 4th Centurty BC)
This was the last empire to rule over the modern Bosnian territory. Many converted to Islam because people could avoid an extra tax and were able to gain some social power. This empire placed Muslims at the top of the social ladder.
Location of a UN Safe Area, protecting thousands of Bosniaks
Protected by a battalion of Dutch peacekeepers, as well as the Bosniak defenders
Attacked by the Serbians in July of 1995
Over a few days in July 1995, Serbian forces killed more than 7000 Bosniaks
Replaced IFOR in December 1996
Role was to make sure the region remained stable
Also worked to hunt down war criminals wanted by the ICTY (Internation Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia)
1994. Bosnia: a short history. New York and London: New York University Press
Montgomery, Lane. H.
2007. Never again, again, again... genocide: armenia, the holocaust, cambodia, rwanda, bosnia and herzegovia, darfur. The United States of America: Ruder Finn Press
2007. Bosnia and herzegovia: identity,nationalist, landscapes and the future of the state. New York: Columbia University Press
Main goal: Unite all Serbs into a greater Serbian state
Main Goal: To unite the Croats of Croatia and the Croats of Bosnia to create a greater Croatian state.
Main Goal: To preserve the Bosnian state to prevent mass discrimination.
These countries are mainly defined by ethnic or religious tenancies
Early groups began to associate with others that had the same language group.
This was the first major empire that stressed religion and this caused a mass conversion from polytheism to Christianity.
This became the second major empire that caused a large number of converts although it is still Christian.
This city was mainly comprised of Bosniaks who were under siege by Serbian forces.
Originally used as a religious identifier.
Originally used as a religious identifier
-Also known as Operation Joint Endeavour
-60,000 support force members deployed in 12/1995 and until 12/1996
A Serb militiaman kicking a dying Muslim woman.
This was and is the longest siege of a capital city in modern warfare. The siege began on 5 April 1992 and ended on 29 February 1996.
The City was constantly shelled by mortar bombs. Every place that was hit has been filled in with red resin and are now referred to as the roses of Sarajevo
A mortar bomb hit a market where people were trying to buy bread and killed twenty two people. Vedran Smailovic, a local cellist, played out in the open during the siege in an act of defiance.
The tombstones of 7,000 to 8,000 Bosnian Muslim Civilians killed by Serb Snipers and Bombing Raids now fill the former Olympic Soccer Stadium in Sarajevo
The music was David Wilde's Cellist of Sarajevo preformed by Yo-Yo Ma.
-Kingdom of Yugoslavia was invaded by Axis Powers
-All of Bosnia was ceded to the new Independent State of Croatia which led to mass-killings of the native anti-fascists
-1941, communist Yugoslavs formed the partisans under Josip Broz Tito. They fought the Axis and Chetnik forces
-11/29/43, a conference in Jajce was held where Bosnia and Herzegonivia was re-established as a republic within the Yugoslavian federation
-With military success, came allies for the Partisans
-1946, the Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegonivia became one of the constitute republics of the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia
-Life in Bosnia, social, economic, and political changes were imposed by the new communist government
-Many Muslim traditions were abloished
1960's - Early 1970's
-In the 1960's, the acceptance of the term "Muslim" as a national identity began to become prevalent
-By 1971 Muslims were the largest population in Bosnia
Early 1970's - Mid 1990's
-1971-1990 the Serb and Croat population drastically decreased as most emigrated
-In the mid 1990's Bosniak replaced the term "Muslim"
-12/1991, Croatia and Slovenia recognized by the EC (European Community) for their independence
-Yugoslavia does try to retake Slovenia, but is beaten by the Slovenians in combat and forced out by European Community pressure
-This draws attention to Bosnia for the same reasons
-From 2/29/92 - 3/1/92 a vote was held and 2/3 voted for Bosnian independence
Facts about the conflict
-April 1992: Towns in eastern Bosnia were attacked by Serbian army units
-Within six weeks 2/3 of Bosnian territory was under Serbian control
-By 1994 the Serbs controlled about 70% of all Bosnian land
-Serbian success can be attributed to attaining the lion's share of the former Yugoslavian army's arsenal. However, they had a shortage of manpower which limited them tactically.
-Bosnian forces had plenty of manpower, but had little way to attain weaponry due to a UN arms embargo on Yugoslavian states. Croatia did not have this problem, as it could smuggle weapons through its sea ports.
-In 1993, the Bosniaks and the Croats began fighting over territory, especially around Mostar, but a treaty set up in 1994 combined the two forces in order to fight against the Serbs.
-NATO intervenes in 1995 with "operation Deliberate Force" targeting the army of the Republika Srpska
-Operation Deliberate Force was started to protect the safe areas under siege
-Carried out from 8/30/95 - 9/20/95 involving 400 planes and 5000 people from 15 countries
-They dropped 1026 bombs on 338 Bosnian Serb targets, most of which were destroyed
-Peace negotiations held in Dayton, Ohio, also known as the "Dayton Agreement"
-Following this agreement, the CIA found Bosnian Serb forces were responsible for 90% of war crimes throughout the conflict
Capital of Bosnia
Signs like this were posted all over the town of Sarajevo, warning people of where snipers were located or where the firing zones were.
The snipers were from the Serbian army, and they wrought havoc on the civilian population of Sarajevo.