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Copy of Linear Alkyl Benzene v1
Transcript of Copy of Linear Alkyl Benzene v1
Total cost of production (including sales expense, charges, R&D) £111 MM
Cash cost of production £92.1 MM
88 MW hot utility saved vs. no integration
90 MW cold utility saved vs. no integration
Use of high quality catalyst and adsorbent that can be regenerated and hence recycled.
Spent catalyst will be sold for use in less demanding applications.
Catalyst inventory minimised by unit optimisation.
Separation stages designed to a high level of separation.
Use of recycle streams minimises raw material waste.
Units designed to minimise utility consumption.
Light and heavy kerosene can be sold back to the refinery.
Raffinate from the molecular extraction for jet fuel blending.
HAB is sold to be used in similar applications to LAB.
Proposed LAB Plant
Precursor for the manufacture of LAS (linear alkyl benzene sulphonate), used to make many commercial detergents
Use of LAB as opposed to HAB or BAB makes the detergent have an increased biodegradability
Produce LAB with a carbon chain length of C10-C12
Used in household application, including dishwashing
Approximately 95% LAB used in synthetic detergents
LAB market expected to grow 2-3% per annum, with the market for household detergents specifically expected to grow at 2% per year.
Current global capacity is approximately 3,600 kT
Expected to increase by 429 to 660 kT by 2013
Production will account for approximately 10-16% of the increase in demand
China has the highest worldwide consumption, approximately 18%
Capacity: 115 kt per year
Located: Dalian, China
Total investment: $110 MM
Break even time: 7 years
Production life: 20 years
Profit after 20 years: $86.2 MM
Total capital investment of project in China in 2013 is £110 MM ± 30%.
Equipment and zone contribution to total installed cost (£45 MM)
Cash flow diagram
Raw material/ Consumable costs, by-products costs and product prices
A sensitivity analysis was carried out to examine the effects of uncertainties in the forecasts on the viability of a project.
It was assumed that the margin between the raw materials and by-products will be maintained by an increase in the price of raffinates and aromatics if the price of kerosene should increase.
Summary of Economics
From the economics, the project seems to be an attractive investment.
Economics contains errors due to source and accuracy of data used.
It is recommended that a detailed cost estimation and economic evaluation based on more accurate data (e.g. vendor information) be carried out.
Price forecast needs particular attention due to the sensitivity of the project to the cost of materials.
Sustainability of LAB
A quantitative assessment provides a measure of environmental impact.
Carbon footprint estimation via a Life Cycle Assessment.
All process compounds must be examined as they can also have a direct effect on the environment.
Kerosene – from crude oil (fractionation process), transport to/from refineries.
Benzene - from crude oil (catalytic reforming/steam cracking), higher CF than kerosene, carcinogenic.
Linear Alkyl Benzene – relatively non-toxic, biodegradable (half life of 4.1 days)
Heavy Alkyl Benzene
The main contributor to fired heater CF is zone 5B (paraffin, LAB and HAB separation).
Zone 1 (pre-fractionation) and zone 5B are also the main contribution of the steam CF.
Both are distillation processes requiring a lot of energy.
In addition, the largest contribution to CF when split down by zone was found to be zone 5B (paraffin, LAB and HAB separation), closely followed by zone 1 (pre-fractionation).
Simple pay back (max. 5 years) and NPV are used to determined the viability of the project
The average gross profit is £41.8 MM per year as determined from the cash flow analysis
Simple payback of project is 2.3 years
Net present value at the end of the project life with 15% cost of capital and 35% company tax was estimated to be £86.2 MM
Quantification of Environmental Impact:
Life Cycle Analysis
Carried out from cradle to gate.
Heavy fuel oil use for generation of steam (off site) and fired heaters.
Impacts of transportation, storage, waste and construction were considered negligible.
Transport via pipeline.
Waste streams dealt with via nearby refinery.
Replacement of catalysts has a relatively low CF.
All water in the cooling systems is to be recycled.
Construction emissions are low when averaged over the lifetime of the plant.
Quantification of Environmental Impact:
Life Cycle Analysis
The initial LCA showed that the carbon footprint was around 583 kt CO2 equivalent per yearly output of LAB (115 kt).
Or 5.1 kg CO2 per kg of LAB produced (0.6 kg CO2 per kg product).
The raw materials have a CF 2.3 times larger than the LAB production process.
Of these raw materials benzene has the largest CF per unit mass. Try to reduce consumption.
Electricity is the largest use of energy but has a low CF.
The largest CF per kWh of energy was found to be for steam and fired heaters (using heavy fuel oil).
Raw materials are the largest are the contributor to carbon footprint. In the future investment can be made into optional raw materials/ synthesis routes.
Research more sustainable energy sources.
Possible Alternatives to the Current Design
Oligomerisation of ethylene to produce hydrocarbons as a paraffin feedstock.
Alternative detergent alcohols via esterification and hydrogenation of fatty acids produce alykl glucoside (another detergent) when reacted with glucose.
Minimum Energy Heat Exchanger Network.
Feasible exchangers chosen based on operating unit location, start-up/shut-down and process control.
High priority placed on high duty exchangers.
Heat exchanger network chosen offers a compromise between plant flexibility and minimum energy usage.
Heat Exchanger Network
Two fractionation columns.
Separates heavy and light kerosene from desired heart-cut kerosene.
Fixed-bed catalytic reactor and two fractionation columns.
Removes impurities from the kerosene.
Molecular Extraction (MOLEX)
Fixed adsorption bed with zeolite catalyst.
Extracts paraffins of the required cut.
Catalytic Dehydrogenation (PACOL) and DEFINE
Fixed-bed catalytic reactor with platinum containing catalyst and gas-liquid separator column.
Converts paraffin to olefins.
PACOL Enhancement (PEP)
Fixed-bed adsorption column.
Removes aromatics from the PACOL bottom product.
Detergent Alkylation (DETAL unit)
Reactor and three fractionation columns.
The n-olefins produced in the PACOL unit are arylates n-olefins and separates LAB from HAB , paraffin and benzene.
Molecular restrictive separation of linear and branched paraffins
Displacement desorption in a simulated moving bed (SMA)
Due to high mass transfer force
4 columns, 16 isolation valves
Calcium zeolite A
Continuous counter-current flow
Use of solid heterogenous catalysts: environmentally inert and reusable catalyst to replace the dangerous and highly corrosive homogeneous Lewis and Bronsted acids
For industrial application the catalyst used in the DETAL process will be applied. This the fluorided silica-alumina catalyst and is the only commercialised catalyst.
However, it is recommended that other catalysts are researched and developed for their application in the process. Specifically superacids as they are receiving numerous attention and show high catalyst performance in the alkylation reaction. The catalysts of interest are UDCaT-5 developed by Yadav and Siddiqui, a mesoporous zirconia based catalyst with 9% w/w sulphate and immobilised AlCl3 prepared by vapour deposition, developed by Kumar and co.. The performance of these aforementioned catalysts are given below:
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