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Ch. 6 The Land Changes Hands

MN History

Geoff Cleveland

on 21 February 2014

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Transcript of Ch. 6 The Land Changes Hands

To the Dakota, Minnesota was home
It held the graves of their ancestors and held sacred traditions
The land provided them with food and the means for travel
This Period in Minnesota History sometimes referred to as a "turning point"
When making formal agreements concerning peace or alliances, Native Americans traditionally held conferences where oral agreements were struck.
Turn to a shoulder partner and discuss why making agreements verbally can be troublesome
Why is there a need to write things down?
Rather than writing the agreement out in order to formalize it, some native groups used wampum belts
These belts contained patterns of woven white and purple shell beads that portrayed images related to the agreement being reached.
Early meetings between Europeans and Native Americans contained elements of both traditions
Negotiated oral agreements were written down and signed
Wampum belts were produced as a symbol of the agreement
Turn to a shoulder partner and discuss:
Why might it be problematic in having two different ways to show an agreement?
Whose "version" of a treaty do you think is the one that will be honored?
The earliest treaties established alliances and focused on trade rights
Who can trade with who?
Where can trading posts be set up?
Later treaties focused on who controlled the land
The United States initiated treaty negotiations in order to secure legal rights to own the land so that they could establish local governments and encourage European American Settlement and business development
The idea was to compensate the Natives for the purchase of the land by providing them with annual payments of cash and goods and establishing reservations on which they could live
1868: 367 Treaties are created with Native Groups
They were not to be altered without mutual consent
Many treaties deceived Native Groups
However! Many treaties were altered to reduce Native land or the US took all the land in its entirety
Some natives were moved to land that was unsuitable for living
1805: The first land treaty between the United States and an American Indian Group in what would become Minnesota
The Dakota granted land to the US Government
Land would be used for Fort Snelling
1830: Treaty at Prairie du Chien
US Government acquires land in Southern Minnesota
1837: US signs land treaties with both the Ojibwe and the Dakota for land in Minnesota and Wisconsin
1847: United States strikes a deal with the Ojibwe to acquire land west of the 1837 cession
1851: Treaties signed with the Dakota to acquire roughly the southern half of the United States
1854: US purchases land from the Ojibwe that covers much of northeastern Minnesota and northwestern Wisconsin
1855-1889: Various treaties allow the US to acquire over 14,000,000 acres of land throughout Minnesota
Turn to a shoulder partner and discuss what you see in the following painting and what you think all of this means
SO what is exactly Manifest Destiny!?
Lets find out! Take it away MC LaLa
So what do you think Manifest Destiny is?
Some people simply think Manifest Destiny means...
Some historical dudes have said this about Manifest Destiny
"we are a nation of human progress, and who will, what can, set limits to or onward march?"
"Manifest Destiny to overspread and possess the whole continent which Providence (god) has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty"
"we have it in our power to start the world over again"
SO what is your definition of Manifest Destiny?
This is a point at which decisive change occurs
A turning point can be
- or all of these
Turn to a shoulder partner and discuss why this period in MN History is a turning point
Think about what happened (what we learned about) before this time period and what happened after this time period (what does Minnesota look like today?)
Now apply it to your life, discuss with your partner a turning point in your life
For nearly 150 years, European fur traders and travelers had come and gone from the land we now call Minnesota
Most of them were not interested in changing the ways of the Dakota and Ojibwe or in owning the land...they were just concerned with furs and prrrrrrrrofit!
At first the Ojibwe and Dakota traded with the French and the British...But then in the early 1800s they were no longer trading with Europeans
In the early 1800s a new nation arrived
in 1783, the United States officially gained independence from Great Britain in the Revolutionary War (you will learn this next year...maybe from me)
As a result of winning the war, the United States gained control of land previously held by Great Britain.
However...technically this land belonged to the Native Americans
The United States Government made it a point to buy the Native American land for cash and goods
Now throughout history, if a country wanted something they would take it by force (war)
Looking at the treaties between the Natives and the U.S.
Both sides knew that the U.S. had more money, more people, and more military power
As a result, the U.S. had more bargaining power in treaties
Controversial discussion? Based on what I just showed you and what you have read in Chapter 6; was the United States being nice by offering a treaty?
Turn to a shoulder partner and discuss
To early to come up with a solid opinion?
1805: The United States begins talks with the Dakota to gain land where the Minnesota and Mississippi Rivers meet
Of the 7 Dakota members that the U.S. Government was in discussions with, only two of the Dakota members signed off on the treaty
The U.S. Government paid $2,000 for the land that is now Fort Snelling and also for a piece of land where the Mississippi and the St. Croix River meet
This 1805 Land Treaty was just the start...
To Newcomers, Minnesota was a land of resources from which to benefit
Forests could provide timber for construction
Fertile soil could be used for farming
Rivers could be used for transportation and also power mills
Once again, Natives recognized that the U.S. was more powerful and would eventually take over the land anyways so that is when they entertained the idea of signing treaties
To the Natives, a treaty would allow them to "reserve" a piece of land to call their own
Natives could also use the money to buy blankets, tools, and food necessary for survival.
In addition some Natives needed to pay back Fur Traders for buying goods on credit
A MN History side story
Thomas Jefferson (considered one of the founding fathers of our country) encouraged treaty making instead of warfare
However Jefferson want to see native people shift away from "savage" habits and suggested that if you can aid natives with goods bought on credit, then they would go into debt and HAVE to sell their land
A bit surprising / shocking?
After land was bought from Natives in 1805 and 1837, Minnesota officially became a territory of the United States in 1849
The U.S. Government recognizes that the Dakota are poor and hungry and plan to offer them money and goods for their food
1851: The United State met with the Dakota (Alexander Ramsey, Henry Sibley, and Stephen Riggs were all present) to negotiate two treaties
The U.S. Government was growing impatient with the Dakota because of the slow negotiations
Dakota elders refused to sign the treaty until most of their people agreed with the terms
Eventually the Dakota decide to sign the treaty.
Two copies of the treaty are signed and what is to be believed is a third copy of the treaty is actually a document that says the Dakota will pay back the fur traders with treaty money
It is estimated that the Dakota were due $1,665,000 and the traders claimed $250,000 of that money
Two weeks later, the Dakota signed a treaty after being threatened by force
Between the Treaty of Mendota and the Treaty of Traverse Des Sioux, The Dakota gave up about 24 million acres of land
The government paid the Dakota $500,000 immediately plus "promised" to pay annuities of cash, food, and goods for the next 50 years
Two "temporary" reservations were established along the Minnesota River
The U.S. Government also set aside a portion of each payment for education programs designed to teach the Dakota to live more like "Americans"
1858: Minnesota becomes the 32nd State
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