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Topic E Summary

This is a summary for Topic E of the Psychology GCSE - Edexcel
by

Jasmine Allen

on 27 March 2014

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Transcript of Topic E Summary

Offender profiling
Is the process used to help the police catch criminals - does not produce names of criminals, but helps to to narrow the number of suspects
Key definitions
Criminal consistency
- idea that a person will commit a crime that mirror their personality - i.e. an organised person will commit an organised crime.

Profile
- a list of predicted abilities, personality characteristics, occupation, martial status - used to narrow down a list of suspects
Becoming a forensic psychologist
Understanding self fulfilling prophecy
Jahoda's study only found a link between a childs name, and criminal behaviour, by using correlation
Sigall and Ostrove (1975)
Aim
Biological explanations
Family studies
- comparing family trees of criminals, and non criminals (biological basis for criminality)
Adoption studies
- Look at relatives, siblings, and twins that were adopted at a young age (shared genes, but possibly not environments)
Twin studies
- Identical, and non-identical twins (finding genetic links for criminality)
Topic E Summary
Nature - Nurture debate
Skills you need...
By Jasmine Allen
Mednick (1984)
Studied 14,427 adopted children
Looked at how many of the children had criminal records compared to their biological, and adoptive parents
Found that adopted children, with criminal records for theft , also had biological fathers with criminal records - even true with siblings who had been separated
Twins
Two types of twins:
identical (monozygotic twins)
non-identical (fraternal, or disygotic twins)
If both identical twins are criminals, it suggests a strong genetic link to criminality
Christiansen (1977)
Studied 3,586 pairs of twins, in Denmark
Found that - if an identical twin was a criminal, then it is 52% likely the other twin will also be a criminal
Only 22% of both non-identical twins are criminals
Found the link to be for property crime, but not violent crime
Could show their is a genetic basis for property crime - shared criminal tendency for half of twins studied
Genetic Inheritance
Family, and twin studies seem to suggest that we are more likely to turn to crimes such as theft, if we have a family member who has a criminal record .
Not genetics?
One argument is..
that is it nothing to do with genetics at all, family members are raised together and treated similarly
similar criminal behavior - can be explained by observational learning
Chromosome abnormalities
Normal males have an XY chromosome pattern - in the 1960's discovered the extra Y chromosome
Males with an XYY chromosome pattern were found to be more violent, and aggressive
The condition is not inherited
It is a rare disorder

Theilgaard (1984)
Wanted to see if criminals with a particular gene could be responsible for criminal behavior
Took blood samples from over 30,000 men born in the 40's
16 men had the XXY chromosome abnormality
12 men had the XYY chromosome abnormality
Found that XYY males have slightly lower levels of intelligence than average - tended to be more aggressive towards other people. This could be evidence that there is a criminal gene.
However, there are a lot more similarities between XXY males, and the XYY males than there were differences
The studies provides limited evidence for XYY males being more aggressive that XXY males - more similar, than different
Strengths
Conducted by an independent social worker, who had no knowledge of the study aim - no bias reports
Used a vast range of tests to measure different aspects of the men's lives, backgrounds, and personalities
Weaknesses
Only used a small sample of men - 1 in 1,000 males born with the XYY chromosome abnormality
Only 12 men, had the XYY chromosome abnormality; which means we cannot be sure that all men with the XYY chromosome have lower intelligence, and increased aggression levels- findings aren't generalisable
The link between XYY males, and aggression is only a correlation - this means it could not have caused it, there could be many other factors
Theligaard (1984)
Social explanations
Experiences children have may affect their later life, such as :
Divorce
- can lead to single parent house holds, so called to be 'broken homes' - those from these 'broken homes' are twice as likely to become a criminal. Boys can be affected because they may not have a father figure role; girls tend to become more depressed than aggressive. Divorce can often lead to many other issues such as moving home, and school, and financial difficulties
Separation
(maternal deprivation) - Child needs a sense of security, can become distressed if they are separated. If bond is broken - especially within first two years - the child may suffer last effects(i.e. feeling rejected)
Family size
- Farrington (2002) found that families with a six, or seven children, were more likely to turn to criminality - this could be due to the lack of parental supervision. Larger families also tend to have lower incomes (or the incomes are being stretched) this means there a fewer educational opportunities for the children, and this has been linked to youth offending such as fighting, and drug use
John Bowlby (1964)
Questioned 44 boy offenders about their crimes, and the relationship that they have with their parents
found that 14 boys felt no guilt about their crime
12 out of the 14 boys (who felt no guilt) had been separated from their primary caregiver before they were two years old
the 30 students that did feel guilt,only 5 had been separated from their primary caregiver
David Farrington (2002)
studied 411 boys from the East end of London for over 40 years
boys were 8 when they started, and visited every couple of years,until they were 46
the boys, mothers, teachers, and friends were interviewed throughout
known as a longitudinal study

Following factors that are linked to the boys turning to crime:
low supervision by parents
poor housing
parental neglect
harsh, or inconsistent parenting
separation of parents
low achievement at school
Induction
Involves explaining to the child what they have done wrong - child can identify their wrong doings
Love withdrawal
Parent withdraws their affection for the child - makes them feel guilt for what they have done; saying that they do not love them when they are bad
Power assertion
Can be thought of as excessive control - such as smacking a child, or telling them off. The child is threatened with punishment, to make them behave.
Child rearing
Child learns to see
from another perspective
Child feeling are manipulated -
do not develop a clear sense of
individuality, and independence
(feel rejected)
Often associated with this child rearing strategy, is
delinquency
, and
low self esteem

Can lead to development in aggression:
if the punishment is inconsistent (child is never sure of the punishment they will receive, or when they will receive it)
punishment is lengthy, and severe
verbal threats are not seen through - leaving a child scared
each parent applied different standards of punishment
Understanding parenting strategies
It is clear there are many factors that contribute to delinquency - child rearing strategies used by a parent is just one of the factors amongst this
Key definitions:
Conform
- to adjust to the expectations made of us

Self fulfilling prophecy
- when the expectations of others influence our behavior
One theory of criminal behaviour is...
that if people expect us to behave badly, or become a criminal
we will conform to that expectation
Self fulfilling prophecy - theory that states that a prediction of our behaviour, it will come true
Expected to be a criminal ---> We will act like one
Rosenthal and Jacobsen (1968)
Conducted a experiment to test weather achievement could be self - fulfilling
Gave school children an IQ test
Told teachers, random lists of children, who were going to be an average, and which were going to be 'bloomers'
Found that the teachers did not expect much from the average children, and focused all their attention on the 'bloomer' children
Teachers expectations of children's abilities had altered how they were treated, and this affected their ability
Gustav Jahoda (1954)
Studied the Ashanti people of Africa - who have a custom of naming their children after the day of the week they were born
Believed that the names of boys can be linked to their temperament
Example - Boys born on Monday are called Kwadow (thought to be calm, and peaceful children) while children born on Wednesday are called Kwadku (thought to be aggressive, and angry)
He studied arrest records, found that 22% of the boys arrested were born on Wednesday, compared to only 6.9% born on Monday
Jahoda thought this was because children born on a Wednesday would have been treated differently - been expected to be aggressive or criminals
Would be unethical to see if the cause of the crime is by treating someone differently - cannot be studied
Many people reject the way they are treated by other people - do not fulfill the prophecy
Do not take into account other factors - biological, how they are raised etc
Comparing theories -
biological and social
Biological
focus on how we are born a criminal - inherit the genes
criminal behaviour runs in families
adoption studies (show could be inherited)
chromosome abnormalities, leading to aggression - such as the XYY chromosome
theory weakened - confusion in genetics (twin, and families)
chromosome research is limited
Social
focus on how we are made into a criminal
brought up in a family - criminal behaviour more likely
separation from parents - distress caused, can affect development later on
self fulfilling prophecy - how we are treated affects our behaviour
theory cannot explain social influences - such as peers
people often rebel against how they are treated
Nature
Biological side of the debate
Argues that criminal behaviour is inherited through our genes - this means if a family member is a criminal we are more likely to be a criminal our self
Criminal behaviour is caused by a chromosome abnormality - XYY gene patter; pattern effects aggression
Nurture
Upbringing causes criminal behaviour
Family patterns can lead to crime - experiences such as divorce, can result in a negative childhood
Links to how we are raised - such as child rearing strategies used (harsh, and inconsistent punishment)
Self fulfilling prophecy - social explanation; that the way others treat us affects our behaviour
whether attractiveness affected jury decision making
is there a relationship between attractiveness, and the type of crime committed
Procedure
120 participants - given a piece of card; with the crime written on, and a photograph of the woman
split into six different groups of 20 - each group either saw an attractive, or non attractive photo
Results
Burglary 2.80 5.20 5.10
Fraud 5.45 4.35 4.35
Attractive photo
Unattractive photo
No photo
Conclusion
Shows that looks are important on influencing jury decision making - good looking people do get away with some crimes - but if they have used their looks to commit a crime they are less likely to get away with it
Strengths
Uses good controls - all given the same instructions, similar cases to read and sentences to decide
Control group used - see if photographs did affect participants decisions
Less likely to guess aim, because did not know what the other groups were doing
Study could be used in real life
Asked to rate the attractiveness of the photograph - peoples views on attractiveness vary
Weaknesses
Experiment is not realistic - not what a jury would experience
Juries only usually decide if the defendant is guilty or not - judge decides length of sentence etc
Madon (2004)

Aim
Aim of the study - see if a parents expectations of their child's drinking habits became a reality
Procedure
Madon questioned 115 children aged between 12, and 13 years old, and their parents - asked to guess how much alcohol their children consumed, and a year later said how much they actually did
Results
Found that the children who drank the most - was the ones whos parents had predicted it
Conclusion
Showed that a parents expectations of their childrens alcohol consummation
was very accurate - self fulfilling prophecy because the parents expectations came true
Strengths
Strength of the study - was large number of particpants - more vaild results
Gives a strong warning to parents about holding negative beliefs towards their children
divorce
separation
family size
Weaknesses
parents may not always influence their child's behavior (accurate predictions)
many other people influence behavior - for example peers -
social learning theory
correlations have less control than experiments - lots of variables
questionnaire may have used
social desirability
Is criminal research practical or ethical ?
Practical
Only a few had the XYY chromosome abnormalities, and are very difficult to detect
Family links are easy, but many different types of crimes, and criminals
Many criminals are successful - studies rely on convictions
Ethical
Cannot say a specific chromosome pattern causes criminality - could become a self fulfilling prophecy
May lead them to believe that they are not responsible for their actions
Never named, cannot be identified
Could be used as a tool - for criminals to commit crimes
Biological research
Practical
Cannot carry out experiments to make someone a criminal - only links are made
Examining why people turn to crime - memory is not very reliable, may changes events, or won't take responsibilities for their actions
Ethical
Parents could be blamed for their children's behaviour - results should be treated with care
Investigating the self fulfilling prophecy;may create, or reinforce existing labels - encourage criminal behaviour
Social Research
Practical
May use the research as a way of gaining early release - results may reflect dishonesty rather than the truth
May try to glorify their crimes - make themselves seem more important
They may feel guilty about their crimes - find it uncomfortable to talk about
Convicted criminals may believe the information they give could get another criminal convicted - could lead to distress
May withhold certain information to protect themselves, their families, or their criminal group
Ethical
Criminals used in psychological research should not be treated differently from non criminal participants
All have the human rights
Should have the right to give consent, be able to withdraw from the study, have their privacy respected, and be debriefed
May feel guilty about their crimes - feel uncomfortable about talking about their crimes
could believe the information they give, could lead to further convictions
Gathering information on convicted offenders
Practical, and Ethical problems
Clues left behind..
the type of victim
the type of crime
the location
the time of day, or night
specific features of a crime
what is taken, or left behind
Creating a profile
1.
analysis of the crime
- the police make detailed records of the victim, place, photographs, DNA evidence, and time of day

2.
building a profile
- a criminal profiler uses this information to construct a potential list of features of a criminal
Key features of profiling
gender
race
age
martial status
occupation
intellectual ability
possible criminal history
area where criminals lives
victimsation?
entrapment?
Colin Stagg (1992)
Arrested for the murder of Rachael Nickell, based on the profile developed by Paul Brittan
No physical evidence could be found, undercover cop used to try get Stagg to confess, which he never did
They arrested him anyway ; police thought of him being the 'right man'
In 2008, a convicted killer - Robert napper -
pleased guilty to manslaughter to that of Ms Nickell
The case of John Duffy
David canter - one of Britain's leading offender profiles
Facts of the crimes
26 - sex attacks between 1982, and 1986
3 - murders between 1985, and 1986
All offenses were committed against young woman
Were committed in, and around London - near railway stations
David Canter's Profile
Lived in London
Was married with no children
Had problems with his marriage
Was a small man
Physically unattractive
Had an interest in martial arts
Was a semi skilled carpenter
Link to British rail
Aged between 20 - 30 years
Facts about John Duffy
Lived in Kilburn, London
Married with no children (infertile)
Separated
5 feet 4 inches tall
unattractive
Member of martial arts club
Trained carpenter with British Rail
Ex British Rail employee
28 when arrested
Forensic Psychologist
They work in courts to uncover psychological issues - may give evidence in court
Look at psychological aspects of criminal activity
Look at psychological issues to do with treating criminals - treatment programmes, and evaluate them
Research the criminals, and profile them
Problems?
Psychopathic disorder
Defined as 'having no guilt, or conscience, and showing behaviour that is very aggressive, or violent
Have to be considered, in regard to 'treatability' - detained in secured faculties
Patient must show progress - but with many psychopaths can not do this
Communication
Problem solving
Observant
Qualifications required
A degree in Psychology - Recognised by the British Psychological Society
Relevant work experience
Masters in Forensic Psychology
Treatment of offenders
Develop rehabilitation programmes
anger management
skills training - learning to interact with others
develop one to one programmes
Treating drug abuse
Treating sexual offenders
Mandatory that they attend a treatment programme
Treatments
Personal construct therapy
1. Thinking of three people you know
2. Writing down one way in which two of them are the same, and on is different
3. Repeating steps 1, and 2 many times, use different people
Allows person to construct their own way to how they see other people
Prescribing substitute drugs

Monitoring progress closely - providing support

Providing funding to help prevent them going back to drugs
One question asked, is what causes it?
It is thought to be a biological basis
Medication can be prescribed to reduce sex drive - however not considered effective
Cause may be non sexual
Can use cognitive behavioural therapy
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