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Neurological Differences

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Brandon Condie

on 14 September 2016

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Transcript of Neurological Differences

Understanding the Neurological Differences
&
Behaviors Associated with ASD

Neuroanatomy
General Impairments
&
Behavioral Deficits
Treatment
&
Interventions
Strength-Based Approach to Treatment
Neurology
Amygdala
Hippocampus
Frontal Lobe
Cerebellum
Corpus Callosum
Function:
Evaluates threat, emotional control, stress response, aids the hippocampus in memory
Topography:
Enlarged
Strength:
Limitations:
Improved memory for interest and details
Low tolerance for stress and anxiety
Function:
Topography:
Strengths:
Limitations:
Memory (i.e., sending stored memories to the cerebral centers).
Enlarged
Logical, system oriented
Perseveration
Function:
Topography:
Strengths:
Limitations:
Function:
Topography:
Strengths:
Limitations:
Function:
Topography:
Strengths:
Limitations:
Links the left and right hemispheres of the brain.
Significantly undersized, hindering effective communication between the two hemispheres.
Hyper-focus on details (e.g., numbers, pictures).
Missing the "bigger picture." being able to bring concepts together (e.g., facial expressions and events correlating
with emotion).
Executive functioning, problem solving, planning, impulse control.
Enlarged frontal lobe due to excessive white matter.
Become visual learners.
Difficulty with abstract thought.
Physical coordination, sensory and motor activity, anticipation of events.
Excessive white matter.
Need for routine, become expert at tasks.
Unsteady, delayed physical coordination, anxiety surrounding sudden change.
Autism Research Center
Cambridge University
Dr. Simon Baron Cohen
Discovery of Gender-Gene Differences
Hyper-masculine (Systemization)
Hyper-feminine (empathizing)
Autistic Spectrum
MH Spectrum
Normal variation
General Impairments
Communication
Social Interactions
Socially
Relevant Behaviors
?
!
Treatment & Intervention
Non-negotiables
Environmental Engineering
Interest-based Interventions
General Interventions
Manualized Treatment
"Interests represent safety, boundaries, and a measure of control. To punish a child (adult) by removing the cherished interest is, in essence, to strip the individual of him or herself, and his or her source of comfort, soothing and strength. Interests are more than hobbies or pastimes. Interests help them relate to the world. ”
Mary Ann Winters-Messiers, PhD; Strength-based model of Asperger's Syndrome - Based on special interest areas
Temple Grandin, PhD.
"My hearing is like having sound amplifiers set on maximum loudness."
Engineering to Consider
Autism
Significant delays or lack of vocalization or language.
Difficulties expressing needs and wants.
Echos words or phrases.
Uses gestures or pointing as a means of communicating.
Lack of spontaneous or imaginative play.
Lack of imitation.
Does not Seek out social interactions.
Unexplained behavior (e.g., laughing, crying)
Does not develop typical peer relationships
Avoid eye contact
Prefers to be alone
Proximity (i.e., aversion to individuals being to close)
Restricted repertoire repetitive type behaviors
Insistence on sameness
Obsessive attachment to objects
Spinning objects or self
Unusual "play" type behavior (e.g., lining up items)
Tantrums
Lacking the ability to percieve real dangers
Engineering to Consider
Accommodating rituals
Safety objects and routines
Texture sensitivity
Sound sensitivity
Minimize change
Transitions
"A Special interest enables them to achieve quite extraordinary levels of performance "
Hans Asperger - Co-founder of Autism/Asperger's
Interest/Strength Based
Organization, counting, ordering
A
Music
Mechanical
Design
Technology
Gardening
Non-Interest/Strength Based
Multi-tracking
High Levels of socialization
Erratic Schedules
Sensory overload
Noise
People
Visual stimuli (e.g., lights)
r
T
Pivotal

Response

Treatment
(PRT)
Picture

Exchange

Communication

Systems
(PECS)
Functional Communication Training (FCT)
Precision Teaching
General
Visual aids/calenders
Behavioral momentum
Preparation for transitions
Predictability
Visual rewards or incentive programs (e.g., token system)
Structure
Established relationships
Exercise
"As the individual shared their special interests with others, their self-esteem increased, body language and communication skills improved, while their self-stimulation distracting decreased."
Thomas Armstrong Ph.D. - Neurodiversity; pg. 68-69
References
Armstrong, T.; Neurodiversity: Discovering the the extraordinary gifts
of autism, adhd, dyslexia and other brain differences; DeCapo
Press, 2010
Dawson, G., Levy, S.; Autistic spectrum disorder: Diagnosis and
management involving time and patiences: Harvard Mental Health,
9.2010
Herbert, W.; Extraordinary perceptions: Scientific American MIND,
4.2010
McCord, B., Thompson, R., & Iwata, B.; Functional analysis of self-injury
associated with transitions. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 2001
Ramachandran, V.S., Oberman, L.M.; Broken Mirrors: Theory of Autism.
SICAM, 11.2006
Resources
Autism Society of America: www.autism-society.org
Autism Speaks: www.autismspeaks.org
Autistic Self-advocacy Network: www.autisticadvocacy.org
National Autism Association: www.nationalautismassociation.org
Autism Conferences of America: www.autismconferenceofamerica.com
Autism Research Institute: www.autism.com
Twitter: @autismUTCO
www.autismresourcesuc.org
National
Local
Facebook
: Autism Resources Utah County
Full transcript