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Human Trafficking

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Angelika Lorinser

on 16 September 2013

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Transcript of Human Trafficking

Human Trafficking
Angelika Lorinser, September 2013

Demographics of Human Trafficking
What Can We Do
Victim Care - Best Practices
Indicators of Trafficking
First Nations, Inuit and Métis
Domestic Human Trafficking
Human Trafficking Labour
What is Human Trafficking
Human Trafficking
“The Game” – Pimping Culture
Sexual Trafficking
Francois Mulder, a young, talented up-and-coming Canadian artist, decided to join the fight against Human Trafficking when he met survivor Timea E Nagy and consequently read her book.

He wrote a beautiful song based on Timea’s experience of what it is like to be a sex slave
Human Trafficking Defined
Human trafficking is the illegal trade in human beings for the purpose of exploitation.

The Trafficking Protocol provided the first internationally agreed upon definition of trafficking in persons. Focus on the so-called "three P's": Prevention, Protection, and Prosecution.

The United Nations’ Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children (The Palermo Protocol) defines human trafficking as:

“the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purposes of exploitation.”
Is a domestic assessment of the situation of human trafficking in Canada
Identifies the criminal organizations involved in the crime (e.g. Hells Angels, Mafia)
Identify high risk areas (borders)
Identify links, trends and intelligence gaps
Justification to allocate resources to conduct intelligence probes
Prioritize the operations of law enforcement domestically and internationally

**Ottawa - Gangs (Crypts, Bloods)
There have been 35 successful conviction cases in Canada
National Threat Assessment
(Canada 2010)
Holds local jurisdiction to investigate suspected cases of domestic trafficking of both Canadian citizens and those with regularized status

Work in collaboration with other forces as required for investigations

Has a Human Trafficking Coordinator position and Outreach team

Key partner with the Ottawa Coalition to End Human Trafficking to provide local input on trends, expertise and knowledge sharing/best practices for victim services, response and development of tools
Ottawa Police Service
Canada has success in 32 human trafficking convictions
9 specific convictions (all domestic)
6 in Ontario
3 in Quebec
11 convictions for other trafficking related offences

As of January 2013, 77 cases currently with human trafficking charges are currently before the courts (130 accused, 119 victims)

Many others where the cases are related to trafficking, but trafficking charges not laid; other charges laid
Domestic Sex Trafficking
Western man negotiates for young Thai girl. After settling on the price, man leaves with girl; trafficker leaves with payment
Domestic trafficking largely females between 14-25 years of age
Largely from vulnerable populations with socio-economic challenges
Forced labour has both genders represented, and spans a range of sectors with food services, construction, domestic services, agricultural sector
Profiles are challenging as victims have also been from middle class and educated backgrounds
International domestic include both labour and sexual exploitation
Victim Profile in Canada
Vulnerability to victimization
40% live in poverty
Highest rates of violence/abuse – spousal homicide rate 8x higher than non-Aboriginal
Half of female single parent families lack stable housing
Higher risk for alcohol or substance dependency
Estimates that 75% of girls are sexually abused
Low rates of reporting to police – highest incarceration rates
Cultural approach to justice – traditional methods and interpersonal/intercommunity healing

*(noted by Aboriginal organizations: a key vulnerability is the intergenerational trauma caused by the Residential School policy and forced relocations

First Nations, Inuit and Métis
Trends in Canada
Majority of cases suggests trafficking for sexual exploitation is more prevalent
All cases were females, Canadian and foreign nationals; each type with unique qualities but similar profiles

Street prostitution most over form of crime, but criminalization has driven it to less obvious places
Exotic dance clubs
Massage parlours

Operating as legitimate businesses, adult entertainment establishments make it difficult to identify and disrupt legal activities
Brothels/bawdy houses remain targeted, but moved to escorting
Domestic Human Trafficking
Sexual exploitation of foreign nationals
Eastern Europe
Age 20-46

Found in escort agencies, massage parlours and exotic dance clubs
Asian victims in bawdy houses or massage parlours

Recruited through ads on Internet, local newspapers, friends or acquaintances
Domestic Trends – Forced Sex
Canadian victims often recruited from other provinces/territories through acquaintances or Internet

Often recruited into prostitution after grooming/conning
Find themselves abducted or forcibly confined
Ranging from 14-34 years (Ottawa 14-25)
Some already involved in prostitution and/or initially consented, to then prevented from leaving, abused or threatened
Victims generally from vulnerable groups – at risk, runaway youth
Working in street prostitution, exotic dance, escort agencies; underage provided fake ID
Domestic Trends – Forced Sex
To date, forced labour cases in Canada have involved both male and female victims
Largely treatment of migrant workers
Fraudulent use of labour programs
Temporary Foreign Worker Program
Live-in Caregiver Program
Investigations show victims from Philippines, India, Poland, China, Ethiopia, Mexico and Hungary

Key sectors – food processing, technology, construction, service industries
Domestic Trends - Labour
BC study of sexually exploited children
½ of youth were Aboriginal
Engaging in survival sex in exchange for housing, transportation, basic needs, drugs, alcohol, etc
Internet access with limited education on the dangers of online predators
Traffickers lure girls under the pretext of providing a place to stay, drugs and alcohol
Seeking a sense of community
First Nations, Inuit and Métis
Object of “The Game” is to make the most money
Be the best at “The Game”
Maintain the “Stable” of women
Bottom Bitch will recruit other boys/girls, or force the others to recruit more for the stable
The ultimate pyramid scheme
Feelings don’t matter – it’s just business, and the boys/girls/women are just “product”
Terminology used in “The Game”
What is a girl worth in “The Game?”
$1,000 per day
$250K - $300K average per year…per girl

Pimps often have a “stable” of girls
Multiple $300K x 3-4 girls = $1.2M per year

Similar to labour exploitation cases, victims are required to “repay”
Lodging, food, basic needs
Transportation fees
Whatever the trafficker deems to be a debt
Imposed “Exit Fee” to leave
Set-up for Debt Bondage
Does the person have freedom of movement?
Has the person been physically or sexually abused?
Has the person or their loved ones been threatened?
Was identification or documentation taken from the person?
Have they been paid for their work or services, and if so, how much?
Do they live where they work? If so, what are the conditions.
How did they find out about the job?
Are there others living or working with them?
Questions to Pose
The organization induces, aids or abets one or more people to come into Canada without a passport, visa or documents
It is a business relationship that ends upon arrival
Movement across an international border
Human Trafficking is not about the borders - it is the exploitation upon arrival in Canada.
Types of Trafficking
Sexual Exploitation
- 85% in Canada
nightclubs, modeling studios, massage parlours, escort services, hotels, truck stops, internet, adult bookstores, private residence, fraudulent adoption/guardianship
Forced Labour
non-unionized industries/sweatshops, restaurants (case summer 2012 Ottawa paid $1.25 hr, 7 days a week and lived in basement), commercial agriculture (bldg. in summertime - mushrooms), construction sites, private residence/forced marriage, Embassies, fishing fleets
Organ Removal
not widespread in Canada - Case Calgary man bought organ
India & South East Asia, Serbia (Eastern Europe)
Occuring internationally, Canadian medical tourism using trafficked organs
Common Rules for Victims
No eye contact
No speaking with other female entertainers
Must be driven to and from strip club
All money is given directly to pimp
Must call the pimp every 2-3 hours while working
Exploitation Through Control
Achieved and maintained using psychological methods

Identify and hone in on one's vulnerabilities, core needs, desire and work to manipulate the weakness

May use cultural, familial or emotional triggers to influence the control (e.g. Fear of police)

Grooming, baiting and conning process

The best traffickers never have to use violence - the locks and chains are often perceived because of control
Initial Contact/Recruitment
Scoping out vulnerable victims
Word of mouth
Often relative or close friend lures or recruits victims
Newspaper ads, employment (modeling dancers, acting)
The Internet - Facebook, Twitter, Plenty of Fish

Grooming Phase
Give you compliments, attention, love you're seeking
Prince Charming
Naive, trusting, low self-esteem, few or no family or social/community supports
Intermediate Care - 2-14 Weeks
Victim services - provide intervention/buffer support for assistance, safety, comfort and support
Find shelter - foster families; family reintegration, or other
Social services tailored to individual socio-cultural and medical needs
Assessment of gaps and goal-setting
Advocacy, legal, immigration, mental health, counselling
Documentation- status, health, individual
Non-emergency health services
Long term Care - 15 weeks to ...
Long term support to build trust, open communications, sense of safe community and self sufficiency
Address health issues
Cognitive Behavioural therapy
Education and literacy supports, Lifeskills training
Legal status for victim and possible dependent(s)
Social interactions - community groups
First 72 Hours
Safe Housing - not a youth or women's shelter! Flexibility and non-controlling
Safety planning
safeguard against cell phone reception and GPS technology
Good Nutrition; non-judgment; open listening
Medications to alleviate symptoms of pain
Immediate support requirements during informal assessment
Full sexual and reproductive health diagnosis and treatment
Diagnosis and treatment of injuries
Interpretation services
Legal Services
Long-term psychological supports
Policy & Legislative Framework
RCMP Leadership Mandate
National Strategy to Combat Human Trafficking (2012-15)
Partnership and Knowledge Gathering - National Threat Assessment in Canada
Protect and Assist Victims
Detect, Investigate and Prosecute Traffickers

National Coordination Centre, and Regional HT Coordinators
Develop tools, protocols and guidelines for investigations
Coordinate national awareness/training materials and initiatives
International and interdepartmental collaboration
Coordination of intelligence to support enforcement
Human Trafficking Laws
Immigration & Refugee Protection Act (IRPA)
June 2002
S. 118 - Trafficking in Persons
$1,000,000 and/or life imprisonment
Criminal Code of Canada (CC)
November 2005
S. 279.01 - Trafficking in Persons (5-14 yrs Fed. Prison)
S. 279.011 - Trafficking of a person under the age of 18 yrs
S. 279.02 - Material Benefitn (up to 10yrs)
S. 279.03 - Withholding or Destroying Documents (up to 5yrs)
S. 279.04 - Definition of Exploitation

*Recent change to trafficking under 18yrs - 14 yrs jail
Temporary Resident Permit (TRP)
Citizenship and Immigration (CIC) determination
Introduced to suspected foreign national victims
Victims do not have to collaborate with law enforcement
180-day period of reflection to decide to proceed with investigation and prosecution, or return to home country
Eligible for interim Federal Health Program for essential medical, dental and trauma counseling
Allows application for fee-exempt work permit
Maybe extended up to 3 years
May qualify to remain in Canada permanently on humanitarian and compassionate grounds
Circumstances Leading to Victimization
Poverty, unemployment - seeking opportunity
War and conflict situations (Bosnia)
Abuse or lack of support within the family (what is seen in Ottawa)
Violence in the home
Lack of social safety nets
Ill-informed families selling their children (Vegas brothel- CND sold two 16yr old girls)
Cheap labour, good and services in many countries
Desire for love and a better life
Indicators of Trafficking
Being escorted / watched - evidence of control
Not speaking on their behalf
No Passport or other form of identification
Limited knowledge about how to navigate the community
Live in or near the work premises
Lack of private space/personal possessions/financial records
Frequently moved by traffickers
Unaware of cell phone numbers
Excessive working days and hours
No days off; low or no salary
Deceived about the nature of the job, location or employer
Physical Indicators
Injuries/bruises from beating or weapons
Signs of torture (cigarette burns)
Branding, tattoos, scarring to signify ownership/property
Signs of Malnourishment
Body language / facial expressions (fear, intimidation)
Serious health problems
Victim Self-Valuation
Victim assistance is critical to the success of many trafficking/criminal investigations
Q: Why don't they just leave?

Don't know how to get out; who to go to for help
Don't know they are a victim of trafficking
Don't trust the police; or police didn't react/respond when asked to help
Develop survival skills; bond with the trafficker
Feel stuck in their situation
Fear of leaving; no way out
Stockholm Syndrome
The clandestine nature and complexity of human trafficking offences makes them extremely difficult to uncover and requires ongoing and proactive approaches that are resource sensitive
The increasing use of the Internet makes it relatively easy for traffickers to recruit and/or advertise trafficked persons
Like other illicit commodities, criminals are using legitimate businesses for the trafficking of persons which further complicates the identification of human trafficking
Challenges remain in coordinating a comprehensive organizational response to the threat of human trafficking
Lack of awareness among the public, the issue of human trafficking may not yet be perceived as a violation of human rights in society
Many victims do not self-identify as victims or seek assistance, hence they go unnoticed
Information sharing between organizations may be impeded by various protocols and/or pieces of legislation (Privacy Act)
Limited research regarding HT in Canada, as well as the impact of HT on vulnerable populations (Aboriginal)
Social, economic and political challenges, while not as widespread as on the international stage, exist within Canada, making certain segments of the population vulnerable to criminal behaviour and/or victimization
What To Do
Conduct a case review of current and historical clients
Assess against toolkit/assessment questions
Is there outreach required?
Safety plan for victim and your organization
Train staff on human trafficking and the needs of victims
Do no harm - no actions should further endanger a potential victim or expose them to greater harm
The potential victim knows his or her situation best
Staff a point-person for trafficking cases - recommend to work with the Ottawa Coalition and St. Joe's Women's Centre for victim-centered support and knowledge sharing on best practices, while adhering to confidentiality
Publicize the contact phone numbers in your program guide or webpage
Make available RCMP and PACT outreach materials available and plant the seed for change
Social Services (Local Coalition Response Team
St. Joe's Women's Centre
Marsha Wilson, (613) 769-6531 mwilson@st-josephs.ca
Jennifer Clark, (613) 231-6722 jclark@st-josephs.ca

Immigration Women's Services
Offers free language interpretation services for victims
1-866-859-8182 / (613) 729-1393

Law Enforcement:
Ottawa Police Service
Human Trafficking Coordinator & Outreach
Wendy Lee (613) 889-7857 leew@ottawpolice.ca
Michel Vandal (613) 857-5459 vandalm@ottawapolice.ca

RCMP (International)
National Human Trafficking Coordination Centre
Sgt. Marie-Claude Arsenault marie-claude.aresenault@rcmp-grc.gc.ca
Immigration & Passport Section/Human Trafficking Specialist (Ottawa)
Lucien Remillard, (613) 808-4927 lucien.remillard@rcmp-grc.gc.ca

General Public
1-800-222-8477 (for anonymous reporting)
911 For immediate safety and assistance
(Ottawa Coalition to End Human Trafficking)

St. Joe's Women's Centre

2012/13 Funding Support
Province of Ontario, Ministry of Community & Corrections

Community Foundation of Ottawa
Ottawa Coalition to End Human Trafficking
Group of organizations in Ottawa dedicated to ensuring that resources are readily available to anyone who is dealing with the tragedy of human trafficking

In March 2010, a multitude of community agencies agreed that an integrated response for trafficked individuals was needed.

Members include: PACT-Ottawa, St. Joe's Women's Centre, Elizabeth Fry Society, Interval House, Ottawa Police Service, Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Salvation Army, Sexual Assault Support Centre, and Zonta Club
Initial Contact
Scoping out vulnerable victims
Word of mouth
Often relative or close friend lures or recruits victims
Newspaper ads, employment (modeling, dancers, acting)
The Internet - Facebook, Twitter, Plenty of Fish

Grooming Phase
Give you compliments, attention, love you're seeking
Prince Charming
Naive, trusting, low self esteem, few or no family or social/community support
Recruitment Locations
Near Shelters
Youth detention and recreation facilities
Adult entertainment establishments
Group homes
Public transportation areas
Bus, train, subway, taxi
Shopping centres
Arcades pool halls
Libraries, community centres
Parks, streets
Festivals, crowded events
Newspaper ads, The Internet
At meetings set up by friends and associates
Grooming, Baiting and Conning
Dating and Love
Make you fall in love
Make you think you're in love- Love Bombing
Targets 14-16 years old

Leaving small town
Retrieving runaways
Will have your back / will show you the world!

Money, fancy lifestyle
Fed by the pimp rap / music and video culture
Bling, drugs, jewelry, clothing
Breaking Ground / Isolation
Debt Bondage -Asserts that the victim must pay back the money spent during the grooming phase (gifts, rent, food, etc.)
Has incriminating, embarrassing video, photos, information and threatens to make it public to family, friends, school, etc
May be developing drug addiction and dependence - thinks who else is going to care for them?
Impact of community's perception than face family and society with social stigma and lack of perceived options
Victim feels controlled; no way out - no knowledge of help available
Full transcript