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AP: Tang and Song China
Transcript of AP: Tang and Song China
Women in Tang Dynasty
-After fall of Han/raids by nomads, patriarchy grows weaker
-The following Tang Dynasty, especially in north, loosens some previous restrictions (Empress Wu)
-Women are even...riding horses!
-Remember, locus of power in Song is largely in South
Women in Song Dynasty
-Patriarchal norms asserted more strongly in Song
-Women were not only seen as weak and men strong, but this was to be celebrated and amplified
-Foot binding becomes popular at this time to highlight female weakness/boundedness to home
-Female role in textile production declined, HOWEVER the growth of cities due to population explosion does offer new jobs (restaurants, selling food, maids, cooks, etc)
-China has constant conflict with bordering barbarians, primarily to the north
-This dynamic has roots in environment (why?)
-Constant cycle of tribute, conflict, and overthrow of Chinese dynasties is a consequence of this relationship
How they see each other
How Nomads see China: How China sees Nomads:
Tribute System In Theory
-Necessary for China to maintain belief that they were dominant, exclusive civilization (Middle Kingdom)
-Non Chinese must first acknowledge that superiority (kow-tow (bowing and giving tribute)). In return, Chinese rulers would give gifts.
-This preserved peace and maintained Chinese dominance.
(but also kind of a threat)
(but also they have cool horses)
Tribute in Practice
-In reality, barbarians dominated China number of times, even going on to conquer it and rule
-Chinese often forced to give "gifts" (silk, wives, etc) that was actually protection money against invasion.
-Typically, barbarians more interested in keeping China whole, but when it broke, they would sweep in.
-At times, cultural lines blurred
-Many barbarians assimilated into Chinese culture at various times. The reverse was more rare but did happen.
-"Western culture" even somewhat seen cool among elites of Tang dynasty, to the distress of southern Chinese