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Oscar Leeson

on 23 October 2014

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Transcript of Drones

By Oscar Leeson
Due 2nd of September
Class Technology Studies
Teacher Mr Wright

The following research presentation will be conducted to demonstrate where drone technology currently is and where it is going in the future.

The Future of Drones
The applications for drones are extremely finite and they will play a massive role in shaping the twenty first century. The same way that the plane shaped the last century and how the internet has shaped the first decade of this one. In the near future the military and security forces will have huge advances in drone tech. This side of the technology when developed further could become a massive threat to the general public's safety or a major advantage in defence. Either way it must be monitored extremely carefully. As a result it may be necessary to have a registration programs in place for any technology that could become even remotely hostile. On a more positive note drones could become an excellent help to society; with the possibilities so vast, this tech could be used to be mutually beneficial to everyone in a wide array of areas. With clear applications in; search and rescue, surveillance (where appropriate), literal air mail delivery, entertainment, sport, cinematography, commercial, etc... In the future it is quite possible that in the same way Bill Gates believed there would be a computer in every home, there will be a drone in every home.
- Introduction
- What are Drones?
- Real world applications
- Laws and Regulations
- Timeline
- The Future of Drones
- Positives and Negatives
- Conclusion
- Bibliography
What are drones?
A drone is any unmanned vehicle controlled remotely and or programmed on a set coarse. The four main types of drones are as follows:
- Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)
- Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (SUAV)
- Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV)
- Unmanned Underwater Vehicle (UUV).
In this presentation UAV's will be focused on.
The Future of Drones
As evident right throughout the presentation there are great opportunities for drones to benefit society. Drones truly are the way of the future in one capacity or another. They can be used for: defending citizens, lowering crime rates, productivity in the work place, entertainment, and transport. If this technology if regulated properly it is incredibly helpful and welcome to the majority of people. Usage of drones cuts down on the use of big polluting helicopters. This is a huge advantage as no longer do people need to have giant and expensive coppers to; cover news, take aerial property photos, check power lines for defects, survey areas, etc... Drones are also extremely useful in warfare. Not only do drones allow a zero risk environment for allied troops but it is actually safer for any target, as the rate of civilian casualties is lower then any other form of attack. In addition to this drones are cheaper then manned planes as they do not have to accommodate a pilot. Also because the drone is unmanned it can be used under much high G forces without being concerned for the safety of a pilot.
Real World Applications
There is a vast array of applications that drones are capable of achieving. As a result many different professions and people have adopted this technology in a variety of different ways.
Laws and Regulations
Due to the fact that this technology is advancing so rapidly the law has had a difficult time catching up with it's progression. But there are limitations and laws in place in an effort to keep civilians and other planes safe. The laws regulating general drone usage are listed above in the info graphic (taken from www.rpastraining.com.au). As seen in the info graphic it is illegal to profit off of drones without an Unmanned Operator's Certificate issued by the CASA (Civil Aviation Safety Authority). CASA is the department within the Australian government that sets the rules and laws on all civil aircrafts including drones.
Drone technology within the last 20 years has become heavily integrated into the military. UAV's and SUAV's (Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) are regularly used in the military for surveillance and attacks. The most prevalent of these drones in the American Air Force is the M-Q series and the more recent X-47B
X-47B Aircraft carrier take off/landing
Through recent innovations in image quality in smaller cameras, incredible drones have been able to be developed that are extremely useful for a large group of different professions. These drones are regularly used for commercial purposes in real estate, surveying, photography, science, etc... For example real estate agents use drones to take elevated isometric photos of properties that previously could only be taken from helicopters. Biologists regularly will fly drones over jungles and bush land to track and observe animal movements or growth patterns in nature to further study without disturbing the environment. In profession sports (particularly extreme sports) GoPro footage with be recorded from drones to make videos to be then often uploaded onto YouTube or streamed on live television e.g. football. There recently was a program introduced in the United States to have a drone delivery system for small passels to be air dropped to your home in the form of Amazon Prime Air. The program is currently in the final stages of polishing and still is yet to be approved legally. The commercial applications for drone technology is near infinite and it is continually expanding at an exponential rate.
MQ-1 Predator
MQ-9 Reaper
The Austrian Balloons (1848)

The first recorded use of an unmanned aerial vehicle was in 1849 and it consisted of balloons used to deliver payloads onto Venice in the attack lead by the Austrians.

The 'flying bombs'/ 'aerial torpedoes (1916)

Developed during WW1 these 'flying bombs' are considered not only to be among the first UAV's but also the very first form of what is commonly known as a cruise missile today. These aircraft's where designed to fly in a straight line for a set distance and then plummet towards the ground to then blow up on enemy territory without anyone physically crossing the boarder.
V-1 'flying bomb' (1936)

Ryan Firebee's (1951)

The Albatross (1981)
GNAT-750 (codename: LOFTY VIEW) (1993)

MQ-1 Predator (1994)

Northrop Grumman X-47B (2011)

The X-47B is the most recently developed American drone and also the most impressive. This is drone as seen earlier is the first drone to ever take off and land on an aircraft carrier. This is an enormous leap in accuracy and technology for drones.
The series of Firebee's was used right throughout the 1950-60's as unmanned practice targets for pilots. These drones are still today the most sold drones ever with 4000 units being sold to US army in that period of time.
The Albatross was a prototype drone that never saw any combat but was the stepping stone for engineer Abraham Karem who after proving himself built the Amber which saw enormous success. This drone was able to stay in the air for a record breaking 56 hours. This prompted DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) to fund his research, which enabled him to contribute massively to this technology. He went on to make his own company, which in 1990 was purchased as a subsidiary for the company General Atomics.

During the early 90's the pentagon made 3rd party drone development in America very difficult. This was done by stopping all funding from DARPA to engineers. However the director of the CIA was an acquaintance of Abraham Karem and as the CIA acts separately to the military they where able to fund General Atomics. This funding created GNAT-750 the first fully functional reconnaissance drone. This project was incredibly secretive and was kept from the pentagon under the codename
The successor to the GNAT-750 was the MQ-1 Predator built by General Atomics. This drone was a major leap from the GNAT as is not only had stealth surveillance capabilities but was armed with missiles and a laser guiding system. This plane additional fix problems with sustainability and range with a SATCOM (satellite communications) link that relayed data from home base to the Predator. The MQ-series still continues today and currently the MQ-9 Reaper is in service around the globe but only American Reapers are armed.

During WW2 aviation had huge leaps in technology. The V-1 was remotely controlled through short range radio waves and would fly adjacent to another plane that would have full control over the aircraft. Once the V-1 was overhead of an enemy target the pilot would guide the 'flying bomb' directly into it. These planes where of German design and the allies and several other countries had there own similar versions of these planes such as the American OQ-series.

Although drones generally seem to be beneficial to everyone there is still the lingering question of morality and safety. Even though there is something to be said about how people are sending in lifeless machines to kill others this is no different to sending in cruise missiles or nuclear missiles. Privacy is also a concern because as drones get better and cheaper, more and more members of the paparazzi/ general people have the ability to spy on others and more regularly celebrities. When considering just how connected these drones are to hackable computers it is an extremely scary terrorism threat. Of course people realise this and the American government had a very interesting approach to this problem. In order to test their security they mad a bet to all American citizens of $1000 that if anyone could hack into the defence network and gain full control of a drone then they would receive the prize. Within a few hours of issuing the challenge some college students won the money during a U.S. test flight of a drone. It was reported that these students had already done this several times without the government even noticing.
Scientists in particular Biologists, have begun to use drones regularly to surveil natural environments and explore new locations of interest. The idea of using drones is to make sure that the ecosystem is not disturbed whilst research is being conducted.
Ted Talk- Using Drones to Conserve Natural Habitats
Drones: A Military Revolution
Where they're used
In summary drones can be extremely dangerous and
. There is no definitive answer as to how these drones 'should' be handled, as a lot of the problems associated with them, fall into a grey area of morality. The one thing that is most apparent and important is that all uses of lethal force involving drones, by agency's/ governments should be transparent. So that the power of drone technology is not abused, for personal gain.



Where Drones are Used?:





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