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Cardiovascular System

Lesson over the heart, blood flow, diseases, and everything pertaining to the cardiovascular system.

Bonnie Chastain

on 2 October 2012

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Transcript of Cardiovascular System

Carbon Dioxide Transport & Exchange Heart H Cardiovascular
System Bonnie Jessica
Hannah Heart
2 networks of blood vessels Vena Cava
Left/Right atrium
Left/Right Ventricles
Bicuspid (Mitral)
Semilunar Valves
Pulmonary arteries/veins Networks Arteries
Carry blood away from the heart Veins
Carry blood to the heart heart failure- failure to pump blood to the rest of the body or lungs.
-acute (sudden) heart failure is caused by trauma to the heart (heart attack or valve damage)
-chronic (developing over time) can be caused by coronary heart disease, persistent high blood pressure, cardiomyopathy, a heart valve or rhythm disorder, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Myocardits- inflammation of the heart, due to infection.
Cardiomyopathy- is non-inflammatory heart disease, the heart becomes weakened, damaged, and stretched.
Hypertension- high blood pressure Arrhythmia- abnormal heart rate or rhythm caused by disturbance in electrical system that controls the heart beat.
Four types
-sinus tachycardia- regular but very rapid heart beat.
-atrial fibrillation-rapid, disordered weak contractions.
-bundle-branch block- heart rate is very slow.
-ventricular tachycardia-very fast contractions of the ventricles. Cardiovascular Diseases Composed of many things
Red blood cells
White blood cells Blood -Stenosis-valve tissue is stiffened and cannot open fully
-Incompetence-valves don’t close completely
-Atherosclerosis- when arteries harden due plaque build up, fat and cholesterol Valve disorder Blood Type Some people who know they may need blood during surgery donate their own blood ahead of time.
Veterinarians also administer transfusions to other animals. Cats have 3 known blood types, cattle have 11, dogs have 12, pigs 16 and horses have 34. Fun Facts Blood types are hereditary and Rh+ is the dominant trait. If your mother is Rh+ and your father is Rh- the Rh+ trait “wins” and you will get Rh+ blood . That is why most people have Rh+ blood.
A single car accident victim can require as many as 100 pints (about 50 liters) of blood. That is about 25 blood bags! Fun Facts If a patient with Rh- blood were to have a blood transfusion and was given blood that was Rh+, the patient could develop Rh+ antibodies in their blood plasma.
How does the body make our blood? The red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets are made in the bone marrow. They float around in plasma, a yellowish liquid which is mostly water absorbed from the intestines from what you eat and drink. Fun Facts Patients with O can only receive blood from O; A can receive blood from A and O; B can receive blood from B and O; AB can receive blood from AB, A, B, and O.
Patients with Rh+ can receive blood from both Rh+ and Rh-, while Rh- can only receive Rh-. Blood Transfusions When a patient is given the wrong blood, an reaction occurs that causes antibodies in the receivers body to fight off the donor blood cells. This then aggulitanates the red blood cells, which causes the clots to stop off blood circulation to various parts of the body. These clots can also crack open and leak toxins into the body. Blood Transfusions It is important to know a patients blood type before a blood transfusion in order to keep the patient healthy. If a patient is given the wrong type of blood, it could be deadly. Blood Transfusions In test tube Rh, if there is agglutination, that means it is Rh+, if not, it is Rh- Blood Typing After taking the patients blood, it is to be mixed with three different reagent solutions in test tubes. One contains A antibodies, the second contains B antibodies, and the third contains Rh antibodies. If any of these reagent solutions match, the antibodies attach to the patients red blood cells causing it to clump. This is called agullutination. Blood Typing O Rh+ contains neither A or B antigens but has Rh antigens

O Rh- contains neither A or B antigens and has no Rh antigens O Rh+/- B Rh+ contains B antigens and Rh antigens

B Rh- contains B antigens and no Rh antigens B Rh+/- A Rh+
A Rh-
B Rh+
B Rh-
AB Rh+
AB Rh-
O Rh+
O Rh- Eight Blood Types Red Blood Cells
White Blood Cells
Plasma What is blood made up of? Usually, a patient is given the same blood type that they have, however in some places where a certain blood type is rare or a hospital is out of stock, a patient may be given a different blood type that is still compatible with their own. Blood Transfusions If the blood in test tube A aggulinates, then that indicates that there are A antigens.
If the blood in test tube B aggulinates, then that indicates that there are B antigens.
If both test tubes begin to aggulinate, that indicates that there are both A and B antigens
If neither of the test tubes aggulinate, that indicates that there are neither A or B antigens. Blood Typing AB Rh+ contains both A and B antigens along with Rh antigens

AB Rh- contains both A and B antigens without Rh antigens AB Rh +/- A Rh+ contains A antigens and Rh antigens

A Rh- contains A antigens while there are no Rh antigens A Rh +/- The eight blood cell types have different combinations of certain molecules called antigens. A and B antigens are sugars and Rh antigens are proteins How are blood types different? Electrical System of the Heart Your heart's electrical system is made up of three main parts: The sinoatrial (SA) node, located in the right atrium of your heart The atrioventricular (AV) node, located on the interatrial septum close to the tricuspid valve The His-Purkinje system, located along the walls of your heart's ventricles S-A Node begins the heart beat by sending electric pulses Signals travel to the right/left atria causing it to contract, moving blood into the ventricals The electrical signal passes between the atria and ventricles through a group of cells called the atrioventricular (AV) node. From here the electrical signal passes through the bundle of HIS, into the right and left branches. This causes your ventrical to contract and push out the blood!
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