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The History Of Cinema
Transcript of The History Of Cinema
James Trevino Now lets begin
Who actually created Cinema?
Well that depends on what you consider the
beginning of Cinema to be, if your definition
is who made it possible, then the obvious
answer is Thomas Edison, the inventor of the
However the first person to make pictures move was Eadweard Muybridge, in 1879 he created the zoopraxiscope which projected images off rotating glass to make it appear as if they were moving.
However the first "Film"
was developed by Laurie Dickson,
a Frenchman who used newly invented
kodak film to create "Monkeyshines " in 1890,
which was a whopping 5 seconds long The First Movie Theatre
was established in April 14, 1894
in New York City and featured 10 machines
at this time film more more of a novelty than anything else The 1910's
The Great Train Robbery The Most popular film before 1910 was the Great Train Robbery, which was 11 minutes long and was produced in 4 days by Edwin S. Porter and distributed by the Edison Trust, who monopolized film early. The budget was $800 Dollars and was considered one of the first major motion pictures. The film sold for $111, which was quite expensive, however the film was replayed so much that it was quite worth the money. Fantasmagorie Directed by: Emily Cohl 2 minutes long Was the first animated film ever created, in order to make this possible
Emile Cohl, a Frenchmen, created a light board which his placed his drawings on top of and then traced the next drawing on top of that picture with all of the necessary changes. Fantasmagorie took 700 pictures and was much cheaper than conventional films as it only took one assistant and Cohl to produce the movie, which was instantly a great success. Was dominated by the Edison trust, they forced
independant companies to sell their businesses to
the trust, and if they refused to comply, shut off their
supply of film so the businesses were forced to close.
However this was far from stopping competition,
independant film companies stuck together and created
their own distribution companies to fight the trust.
However Edison still funded almost all major films of the Era. Major Films and Developments Frankenstien was the first film that used special effects,
this made it extremely expensive and difficult to produce,
it ran for 15 minutes and was the source of much controversy,
during this time period, religious groups wished to censor the film,
since creating life with science did not sit well with their beliefs,
Frankenstien was banned in several locations however was widely a
Distributed by Edison, 1910 Techinicolor, the birth of Color Films
The first patent for a color film process was filed by Edward Turner in 1899
but due to his unexpected death, the process was perfected by MIT Graduates Herbert Kalmus, Daniel Comstock, and Burton Wescott, whom called their process Technicolor. They essentially used a two color system,
which displayed the film through green and orange filters, created colored movies. The first film that this was implemented on was The Guld Between in 1917, although the process was not perfected until much later.
Fun Fact: By 1913 There were 986 Venues which showed Films in New York alone. The 20's
By this time film was an American habit. however 60% of all films were funded by monopolies called "The Majors"
Movies were now Produced with sound!
Actors began to recieve credit for their works.
Rudolf Valentino the "Latin Lover" was featured in the less censored films in this time period. He was sexy, daring, and openly exploitative.
Film companies origionally refused to put stars names on films because if they became famous, they could charge more for their services, however this idea failed and the star era began.
The first Academy awards were held in 1929 and were a great source of public interest.
By 1926 there were around 20,000 theatres across the US.
Top Movies of The 20's The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse
The Ten Commandments
The Phantom of the Opera
The Golden Age Of Film The 1930's was the most successful decade for film, it was home to the highest grossing film in history, Gone With the Wind, as well as many others.
Due to the great depression, during the beginning of the 30's attendance rates in theatres was at an all time low,
the industry compensated by lowering prices, offering door prizes, as well as providing double features. Although
every studio almost went bankrupt during the era, they managed to scrape by and take part in what would become the greatest era for their success.
During the 30's studios controlled the talent, stars were given weekly salaries and did not enjoy many of the perks that stars do today, however they were now given credit for their films. Salaries varied widely at the time depending on the studio. For example Will rogers was making $100,00 per picture while Clack Gable made $650 a week.
Alfred Hitchcock, the master of Horror Alfred Hitchcock was born in 1889 in London England, and began
filming in 1924, he used the abuses of his parents and his childhood
as a major influence in his films. His films were very calculated and
he required a storyboard for each scene. He was one of the first major
directors of film and made the productions exactly the way he wanted to.
many directors have followed in his footsteps, but none have been able
to fully capture his essence in their horror films, the way he calculated
his films to be so realistic, is an aspect of horror films that is ingenious and
almost completely absent in todays thrillers.
1939 The Golden Year 1939 was the greatest year for film to date.
here are just a few of the films released during
year, I think you will recognize them.
Gone With the Wind
The Wizard of Oz
Mr. Smith Goes to Washington
All of these films were high grossing, excellent produtions
that revolutionized the way we see film, as they implemented
the power of the stars moreso than many films before their time.
And they still continue to influence the industry today. The 40's This decade marked the beginnings of commercial television
as well as the end of vertially intigrated studio productions.
Movies had soared to new heights during this era, as movie going
accounted for 25% of the average americans leasure time.
Approximately 90 million Americans went to the movies each week.
The industry was heavily influenced by World War II and caused
people to make films supporting the war effort, as well as adding
commercials before features to help persuade Americans to do their part.
The Rise of Disney Walt Disney was different from most producers in the 40's.
Most tended to be outspoken Jewish Immigrants, who lived lavish
lives in large mansions. Disney however, was a reserved prodestant
who perferred his privacy. He began his career by drawing cartoons
called Laugh-O-Grams which played in local theatres. Using that
revanue, he created his own company in 1922, which soon went
bankrupt. He then made a contract with a New York producer and
created Oswald the Lucky Rabbit. The deal went sour however
and Disney resigned and created his own company, in partnership
with his brother Roy. The Disney company we know today.
in 1928 Mickey Mouse was born in the short film, Steamboat Willie,
for which Disney personally composed the music for. Disney soon
became a tycoon in the industry, and dispite his death in 1966, his
company lives on, as strong as ever. The Controversy: Censorship Sex had been increasingly present in films until the Hays Code
was established in 1930, which created a formula studios had to adhere to,
the document dictated that while there could be sex in a movie, it could never be condoned. This was only the beginning for the industries censorship. Scripts were scrutinized heavily before any production was started and many things were cut out of movies. The code forbid the use of words such as fairy, madam, pansy, tart, nuts, hell, damn, and chippy, as well as Oh God, which was seen as blasphemy.
Women could not show their breasts in a sexual manner, nor could there be a mention of prostitution in films, however this rule was slightly racist,
as black women could dance around topless in films.
Many movies faced censorship battles, one of the most notable
films being Gone with the Wind. Many producers spent hours
thinking of ways to get around censorship, and there
was a place where studios could appeal to try
to get a stamp of approval, however the
stamp was hard to come by
1st Question 2nd Question: How much is too much? The Worst 10 Years During the 50's the industry was rocked to its core.
The government split up nearly sixty years of vertical integration
costing companies millions. To couple with this, Tv had begun to
siphon all business away from theatres. At first they tried to give TV
the cold shoulder, but by 54, the theatres were begging to make deals with television so they didnt become bankrupt. The wizard of oz was shown for the first time on tv in 56', along with many other films. Developments Widescreen is the new norm
Movies now on TV
Top Pictures Cindarella
Singin' in the rain
Around the world in 80 days
The Ten Commandments (Current one)
Ben Hur(Current One)
The 60's The Era of the Baby Boomers During this period, film gained its most faithful companions, the
baby boomers. This drastic change in culture led to the rise of a new
genre of film. The now famous Bond Movies made their debut, as well as
The sound of Music, and Bonnie and Clyde. Seven out of eight movie goers had a TV so going to the movies was now an option. While mom and dad watched their programs, kids sought social opportunities and programs tailored to them, and the industry delivered. The Rating System During the 60's the first movie rating system was developed,
it was later altered to become what we have today. It was created by
the Motion picture association of America in 1966 to help parents know
what their children were watching. The rating system went as follows
G: General Audiences
M: Mature Audiences ( Later Revised to PG)
R: Restricted (children under 16 with an adult)
X: No one under 17 admitted Pushing the Envelope The 60's pushed the envelope as no decade had before, it was wrought
with critisism and racy films.
The 1960 Film The Apartment took a frank approach to sex outside of marriage
Splendor in the Grass (1961) hosted the first open mouth kiss on screen in the US
To Kill a Mockingbird(1962) told the story of a black man falsely accused of raping a white woman
Advise and Consent (1962) Dealt with homosexuality
The Pawn Broker(1965) was the first to contain frontal nudity.
Religous groups were fighting a losing battle, they contstantly pushed to maintain their values in cinema, however the public and the industry was gaining ground constantly. Birth of the Franchises and Summer Blockbusters The 70's and 80's brought about two very large elements of cinema that we see today.
before the 70's all major films expected to gross were released at the end of the year
as opposed to around the time that school gets out. This trend was first started with the
movie Jaws(1974) which has become the poster child for summer films. Another
genre the industry saw come to life was the birth of franchises, such as Star Wars and the
Bond films. Such films were labeled "tent pole" films as together they supported the
industry and brought in huge amounts of revanue. Major Films Jaws
Fiddler on the Roof
Back to the Future
The Rocky Horrow Picture Show
Star Wars Ep IV
Indiana Jones Grease
Starwars Ep V And VI
Bringing it home,
the 90's to now As time has progressed we have seen the rise of many trends, zoopraxiscopes gave rise to projectors, which gave rise to VHS, which gave rise to DVD, and now we have blue ray, on which we watch our films. Pen and paper gave way to pixar and other forms of animation. Frankenstein led to Avatar, and Alfred Hitchcock lead to Saw. We have seen directors come and go, Franchises succeed, and Franchises flop. We have seen extreme censorship, and sometimes we havent seen enough. But where will this trend go? I predict that we will have ever rapidly evolving forms on which to watch our films, animation will become even more advanced than Avatar, Censorship will be almost non existant, and Franchises will become even greater. This trend of more movies with shorter times between was started in the 90's and continues today. 3rd Question: Where will film go now?