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Transcript of WWI
Marching Toward War
Ideas in Europe
Congress of Vienna
Prevent French aggression
Restore balance of power
Competition between countries
Ethnic independence movements
Competition for control
Britian: On FIVE continents
France: Major African holdings
Germany: Slow to enter
Militarism: policy of glorifying power and keeping an army prepared for war.
Great powers need great armies
All Great Powers but Britain had large armies
Armies should be able to quickly mobilize (prepare for war)
Germany, Austria-Hungary, & Italy (1882)
Led by Germany to isolate France
1881: Russia added.
Russia leaves Alliance
1892: France & Russia form defensive alliance
Germany begins a program to increase its naval power – threatens Britain.
Britain, France, & Russia form an alliance (1907)
Britain was not required to fight with France and Russia, BUT Britian would not fight against them.
Ottoman Empire in decline.
Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro, Romania, and Serbia gained independence.
Serbia wants to expand.
Austria-Hungary fears rebellion from Slavs
1908: Austria-Hungary annexes
Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Serbia wants it and makes threats
June 28, 1914: Archduke Franz Ferdinand (heir to throne of Austria-Hungary) and wife Sophie visit Sarajevo, capital of Bosnia.
Franz and Sophie are assassinated by Gavrilo Princip, –a member of Black Hand, a Serbian nationalist group.
Princip sentenced to 20 years in prison.
1918: Princip dies in prison from TB.
Princip is 19
Must be 20 to be sentenced to death
June 28, 1914: Franz is dead
Princip is Serbian
July 23: Austria issues ultimatum to Serbia.
Serbia agrees to most of the demands, but wants a conference to settle others.
Russia supports Serbia
Austria rejects Serbia’s offer.
July 28, 1914: Austria declares war on Serbia and Russia.
Austria wants to use Ferdinand's death as an excuse to punish Serbia.
July 28: Russia begins to mobilize
Austria-Hungary invades Serbia
August 1: Germany declares war on Russia
August 3: Germany declares war on France
Von Schlieffen Plan
August 3: German invasion of Belgium
August 4: Britian declares war on Germany & Austria-Hungary
August 26 - 30:
Battle of Tannenburg
Europe is at WAR!
Allied Powers: Britain, France, & Russia
US, Japan, & Italy join later
Central Powers: Germany & Austria-Hungary
Bulgaria & Ottoman Empire join later
Mid-September: Begin trenches on Western Front
Turkey (Ottoman Empire) joins Central Powers
Western Front = Stalemate
-Opposing armies fight from trenches.
-Hundreds of miles of trenches are dug to protect soldiers from enemy fire.
A voluntary ceasefire along the Western Front
(The soldiers will celebrate Christmas together)
Battle of Jutland
(May 31 - June 1)
Battle of Verdun
(February 21 - December 18)
Battle of Somme
(July 1 - November 18)
Life in the Trenches
"Trench Foot" most common complaint from soldiers. Flesh ROTS from overexposure to water.
New Weapon - Poison Gas
Battle of Amiens
(August 8 - 11)
US joins the Allied Powers in War
Worldwide epidemic -- estimated deaths
50 - 100 MILLION!!!
(November 11, 11am)
Peace at last!
Effects of the War
Paris Peace Conference
held to create terms
Countries NOT at Peace Conference:
Countries present had different agendas:
France wnats Germany crippled.
Britain wants empire protected.
Japan wants equal international recognition
All defeated powers had different treaties
German Treaty: Treaty of Versailles
Germany signs treaty on June 28, 1919
German leaders reject contents
Terms of Peace
-Germany's borders reduced (Poland returns, Alsace-Lorraine back to France)
-West of Rhine River to be demilitarized
-Germany's army restricted to 100,000 men.
-Prohibited German manufacture of war materials (tanks, poison gas, airplanes, and submarines)
-"War Guilt Clause" Germany accepted full responsibility for the war.
-Required to pay for civilian damages to other countries ($5 billion plus other charges within 30 years)
Treaty is effective January 10, 1920.
Germans view it as “Victor’s Peace.”
German politicians demand it to be rescinded, but especially radical right-wing parties like the Nazis.
The Treaty of Versailles will give rise to World War II.
The Spark . . .