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Abyssal Zones

Period 4
by

Joshua Schreurs

on 24 May 2013

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Transcript of Abyssal Zones

Abyssal Zones By Joshua Schreurs Description The abyssal zone is found underwater from 2,000 to 6,000 meters. It is located in any ocean, mostly Atlantic. There aren't really any seasons or sunlight that deep in the sea. The temperature ranges from 0 degrees Celsius to 4 degrees Celsius. The greenhouse effect affects the abyssal zone by reducing fish populations, changing the temperature, and dissolving oxygen. Abiotic Factors The temperature range is 0 degrees to 4 degrees Celsius. The climate is very, very cold. It maintains this temperature range by not being warmed up by sunlight. The elevation ranges between 2,000 to 6,000 meters. No sunlight gets to this biome, which affects the climate by making it colder. Since it is so deep, the pressure is immense which gets to about 11,000 psi which affects the marine life greatly. The greenhouse effect may affect the abyssal zone slightly, but nothing serious. The Biogeochemical cycle picks up water from the ocean which may lower the amount of water in the ocean. If we do run out of water completely, then the ocean could be drained. Symbiotic Relationships Mutualism - when two species work together and both benefit. An example of this is the Dandelion Siphonophore. It is a relative of the jellyfish but it has many little creatures called zooids working together and all of them benefit.

Commensalism - is where two species work together and one benefits when the other gets nothing. An example are the tubeworms and the bacteria. The bacteria converts the chemicals that shoot out of the hydrothermal vents into food for the tubeworm.

Parasitism - when two species have a relationship where one is harmed as the other benefits. As anglerfish mate, they go through a strange process. The male will latch onto the female with his teeth and the female will slowly absorb the male's body, but will leave his testes. Biotic Factors The major producers for the abyssal zone are the chemosynthetic bacteria. They capture their energy using chemosynthesis. They use the hydrothermal vents to do this. This process is similar to photosynthesis, but it requires no light at all! A first level consumer of this biome would be the tubeworms. They suck in bacteria for them to produce the tubeworm's proteins. This lets the tubeworm survive in the abyss. The major carnivore in the abyssal zone is the viper fish. They are quick, fierce creatures with fangs so big, they stick out of their mouths. They feed on other fish that they can find and incapacitate with their fangs to then eat them. A major omnivore is the vent octopus. They hang around the hydrothermal vents and eat amphipods called the Halice hesmonectes. They also can eat crabs from time to time. A detritivore of the abyss is the vampire squid. When fish die from above the abyssal zone, bits of debris of their bodies will fall. This is called organic snow. Detritivores in the abyssal zone will feed upon this. Chemosynthetic Bacteria Tubeworms Zoarcid Fish Viperfish 100% 10% 0.1% 0.01% Human Impact The human impact on the abyssal zone is the pollution going into the atmosphere and then going into the abyss. This pollutes the water and isn't good for the marine life. Humans littered into the ocean and it damages the organisms. The fauna could ingest it, and the plastic could release harmful substances that can alter with the reproductive systems of the marine life. We are slowly changing the Cycles of Matter in the abyss, such as the more ppm in the atmosphere, which does afflict the abyss. The biodiversity in the abyss is slowly decreasing as it has one of the biggest biodiversities on earth. A technique we could use is to study more on the life in the abyss. If we can understand them more, we can learn more about what is happening to them as they consume litter. Thus, we can stop the litter, teach the public, and let them reproduce without the problems of the harmful chemicals. Biogeochemical cycles Water Cycle - Water is picked up from the ocean and into the clouds. The clouds carry it to the land where it is used by organisms and the spare is runoff into a lake or ocean.

Nitrogen Cycle - The nitrogen cycle cycles nitrogen into the ocean and when organisms consume it, other consume them and it leads to death which goes to the bottom of the ocean.

Carbon Cycle - The ocean plays a vital role in the carbon cycle. It has about 50 times the amount of carbon that the atmosphere contains. As fossil fuels burn, about half goes to the atmosphere, while the rest is sequestered into the ocean. Plan My plan to slow down the human impact on the abyssal zone is to slow down the pollution and littering. This would include using other resources more than fossil fuels, such as solar, wind, and geothermal. That would decrease the amount of pollution in the abyssal zone. Enforcing the ban of littering even more would help stop the littering in the abyssal zone. We would have to develop a submarine to go that deep and pick up past litter left in the abyss. People would have to pay more on their taxes in order to accomplish both of these tasks. People would also need to learn about the abyssal zone to be aware of the problems there. I think humans can be more friendly to the planet. They need to realize that polluting the atmosphere will also pollute the ocean. Half of the oxygen you and I breathe comes from marine plants in fact. The faster we kill them, the less we breathe. Works Cited California Institute of Technology. "Chain or Web?" Bigelow.com. California Institute of Tecnology, n.d. Web. 20 May 2013. <http://www.bigelow.org/foodweb/chain4.html>.

"Tubeworm." Tubeworm. University of Delaware Graduate College of Marine Studies, n.d. Web. 19 May 2013. <http://www.ceoe.udel.edu/deepsea/level-2/creature/tube.html>.

Marsden, Lily. "The Abyssal Zone." Prezi.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 May 2013. <http://prezi.com/u9hsiwclkuzh/the-abyssal-zone/>.

Girard, Laurence. "Animals Found in the Abyssal Zone." EHow. Demand Media, 20 July 2010. Web. 17 May 2013. <http://www.ehow.com/list_6755791_animals-found-abyssal-zone.html>.

Gould, Joseph. "Real Monstrosities: Deep Sea Dandelion." Real Monstrosities: Deep Sea Dandelion. N.p., 8 June 2012. Web. 24 May 2013. <http://www.realmonstrosities.com/2012/06/deep-sea-dandelion.html>.

Berreth, Daylon. "Abyssal Zone." Prezi.com. N.p., 10 Oct. 2012. Web. 16 May 2013. <http://prezi.com/heavxswgtb_b/abyssal-zone-biome/>.

"Vulcanoctopus Hydrothermalis." TerraMar Project. TerraMar, 2012. Web. 24 May 2013. <http://theterramarproject.org/species/128/Deepsea%20Vent%20Octopus>.

"The Aquatic Biome." The Aquatic Biome. Ed. Stephanie Pullen. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 May 2013. <http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/glossary/gloss5/biome/aquatic.html>.

Netting, Ruth. "Carbon Cycle - NASA Science." Carbon Cycle - NASA Science. NASA, 5 Apr. 2012. Web. 20 May 2013. <http://science.nasa.gov/earth-science/oceanography/ocean-earth-system/ocean-carbon-cycle/>.

Tyler, Paul A. "Man and the Last Great Wilderness: Human Impact on the Deep Sea." PLOS ONE:. PLoS ONE, n.d. Web. 18 May 2013. <http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0022588>.
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