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The Effect of Temperature on Viscosity

Maraam Haque, Johnson Gao, Tahseen Fairuz and Margaret Gu
by

Maggie Gm

on 3 October 2012

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Transcript of The Effect of Temperature on Viscosity

Different liquids have different properties. One of these properties is viscosity, the liquid's resistance to flowing. Water, milk, and fruit juice are comparatively thin and flow more easily than thicker, more viscous liquids such as honey, corn syrup, shampoo, and liquid soap.So in this investigation, we're going to study the viscosity of a more viscous liquid, shampoo, when it's heated or cooled. THE EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE ON VISCOSITY INTRODUCTION Purpose To investigate the effects of the change in temperature on the viscosity of shampoo. Controlled Variable Been in fridge for 12 hours Heated Hypothesis The higher the temperature the lower the viscosity, the lower the temperature the higher the viscosity because when the temperature of a substances goes up the particles move faster and further apart which will then increase the flow rate. Step 1 1. Put on your safety goggles and measure 100ml of room temperature shampoo into a graduated cylinder and make qualitative observations of the clarity and colour. Step 2 2.Pour the room temperature shampoo from the graduated cylinder to the beaker and time it to find the viscosity (viscosity = ml/s) and test and record this four times. Step 3 3.Repeat step 1 but heat up the shampoo inside the Pyrex bowl with the hot plate until it reaches 60°C – use the thermometer to check the temperature reaches (same temperature 60°C as chosen before which we still don not know at this point). Step 4 4.Pour the heated shampoo from the graduated cylinder to the beaker and time it to find the viscosity (viscosity = ml/s) and test and record this four times. Step 5 5.Repeat step 1 but this time use shampoo straight from the fridge at 4°C. Step 6 6.Pour the cold shampoo from the graduated cylinder to the beaker and time it to find the viscosity (viscosity = ml/s) and test and record this four times. Step 7 7. Compare and graph your results The results of the experiment state that the shampoo at 4°C had the slowest flow rat, at room temperature (the control group) the flow rate was in between the shampoo at 4°C and the one at 60°C. The one at 60°C had the fastest flow rate. To find the average flow rate of each shampoo specimen we must calculate the averages:

(52+50+40+40)/4= 45.5mins is the average flow rate
(8+8+20+20)/4= 14mins is the average flow rate
(1.67+4.8+1.6+2)/4 = 2.5175s is the average flow rate

According to this graph the cold shampoo took the longest time to completely pour, while the room temperature shampoo was in the middle and the hot shampoo was the fastest, there for due to practical assessment the more heat that is applied to shampoo the faster the flow rate becomes.This can also be prove through theoretical example because according to particle theory, the higher the temperature the faster the speed of the particles, so if the particles move at a faster speed they will then become less viscous as they will quickly flow from one place to another. Conclusion Observations & ANALYSIS Modifications and Evaluations This experiment consisted of measuring the viscosity of shampoo at 3 different temperatures, so of course our independent variable was one that can vary very easily of course these practical results wont be the exact same results as theoretical statistics and here’s why: Variations from the specified temperature The shampoo was used at 20°C, 4°C, and 60°C, the one at 20°C would probably be about constant as that is room temperature and this experiment was held in a room that is assumed to be at room temperature itself. The shampoo at 60°C was much hotter than the room so much of the heat could’ve been transferred to its surroundings as heat moves from hot to cold areas. This also goes for the shampoo at 4°C, this probably warmed up a bit as the experiment held and also because it took the cold shampoo (4°C) to go from the graduated cylinder to the beaker the longest amount of time it also had the highest chance of changing temperature in between this transition.To prevent this next time from happening an insulator can be used to keep the temperature from changing or even doing the experiment in a environment much closer to the desired temperature, for example the cold shampoo can be done while holding it inside a fridge which is usually set to 4°C if not set to another temperature. Inaccuracy of timing: When timing the viscosity of the different variables of shampoo all that was used was a timer and 4 pairs of eyes. From the time the last drops of shampoo goes from the graduated cylinder to the beakers, first the fact that all ___ml of shampoo has already finished pouring needs to process, then one must press the button that stops the timer, so in this amount of time some time will be added to the original flow rate of the substance. There are also other factors of how wide the opening for the test tube was, the angle it was being poured at could all be variables for this as well, even though the graduated cylinder being used was constant for all tests and all shampoo was poured through a funnel vertically. If the time was recorded right to the last millisecond then the results of the experiment could vary some to the more accurate measurement.To prevent this from happening next time would be hard because of access of equipment but, for even more accurate recordings you can always have a finger right on the timer and someone with ninja reflexes to record the time right to the second. Also for sake of convenience the times were rounded to the closest second but to keep that more accurate as well the time can just not be rounded which is also very easy to do. Lack of Time If the duration of the experiment was longer then more tests could have been carried out which them would’ve given even more information and results which then results in a more accurate overall result. Also, if more time was given then the shampoo used in the experiments could’ve been cooled or heated more than once which would then keep them at the desired temperature rather than it changing closer to room temperature the longer the experiment went on for which then keeps the results more.To prevent this from happening next time the experiment can just be held over a longer duration of time which will then allow for more space to get more accurate independent variables (temperature) for the experiment. Lack of Certain Materials To measure the viscosity in this experiment all that was used was a timer and two containers to pour from one to the other and this can have many variations of results as the width of the openings of the graduated cylinder and the inaccuracy of just people measuring using a timer because many seconds can be give or take because itTo prevent this from happening next time realistically the materials could just have a slight variation where you would have two beakers where one holds the shampoo and the other will have the shampoo poured in. If the beaker was 50g and the shampoo is 2g/ml and you had 20ml of shampoo then you know that the total mass of the shampoo is 40g. So you can make a small contraption that as soon as the total mass of the beaker reaches 90g (when all of the shampoo from the first container is poured into the second one.) On a balance you can have 90g weight on one side and the beakers of shampoo on the other, so once the one on the bottom gets full it pushes down on the timer and stops it right on time, but even this can go wrong and have many other variables. Unless you have proper equipment that professional scientists use this is nearly impossible. by: Maraam Haque, Margaret Gu, Johnson Gao and Tahseen Fairuz Variables Shampoo at room temperature( 20 degrees) Independent Variable Dependent Variable TEMPERATURE VISCOSITY MATERIALS Shampoo (200ml)
Hot plate
Fridge
Beakers (1)
Timer
Safety Goggles
Graduated Cylinder (3)
Thermometer
Pyrex Bowl
Funnel (2) COLOUR CLARITY LUSTRE TEST 1 TEST 2 TEST 3 TEST 4 COLD SHAMPOO
4 DEGREES ROOM TEMP.
20 DEGREES HEATED SHAMPOO
60 DEGREES Dark, royal
blue Opaque
– very thick Very dull 20ml/52 min 20ml/50 min 20ml/40 min 20/ 40 min Light ocean
blue Translucent – very dense
though, a little more opaque
than translucent Translucent –
very clear Light peacock blue,
but slowly transitioned
to the darkest shade of
blue seen So shiny it seems
like it sparkles Slightly shiny 20ml/8 min 20ml / 1.67 sec 20ml/ 8 min 20ml / 4.8 sec 20ml/ 20 min 20ml / 1.6 sec 20ml / 20 min 20ml/ 2 sec THE END :)
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