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Neurofeedback and Biofeedback

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Andrew Thurber

on 21 October 2015

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Transcript of Neurofeedback and Biofeedback

Neurobiological Approaches
to Rehabilitation

Myron Thurber, PhD, PT, LMHC, BCB, BCN, Certified HeartMath Practitioner

Neurotherapy Northwest Spokane Valley
EEG Biofeedback-measures electrical activity in the brain
What is Neurofeedback
Think of biofeedback as training exercises
Self regulation
Changing both temporary mental state and enduring neural traits
Three Domains
Front=executive function
temporal= memory, language, social integration

Parietal= sensory integration

Occipital= vision
Siblings W/ PTSD and RAD
Teen w/ stroke
RAD Head Injury/Institutionalized
Massive Head Injury/ Sleep Issues
Research Based
30 Year Chronic Depression
"You mean there's hope?"
ASD/Explosive Anger
High Beta/Neurofield
A Father who had given up on his son
We are beginning to see the connecting pathways more than discrete locations.
+ -
most positive experiences flow though the brain like a sieve, while negative ones get routinely caught and turned into enduring neural structure. Our brains are, in effect, Velcro for the negative and Teflon for the positive. This hard-wired asymmetry in the conversion rate of mental states to neural traits-with the negative having the advantage-is the fundamental weakness in psychotherapy and other pathways to healing and growth... (Hanson, 2014).
What Is a Personality Trait?

A personality trait is a stable or relatively unchanging characteristic that identifies individual differences in people.

For example, if your child has bipolar disorder, he may have trait impulsivity. This is a personality characteristic that impacts his reactions to events. Trait impulsivity does not change much over time, or between bipolar (manic and depressive) and normal phases.

Some research suggests that certain personality traits, like trait impulsivity or trait anxiety, may be risk factors for developing future mood disorders.

What Is a Mood State?

A mood state is a temporary way of being or feeling.

For example, if your child has major depressive disorder, he may feel very sad for several weeks at a time. This sad mood is a temporary mood state and not a part of his personality make-up. A sad mood can be improved with treatment.
Common Held View
(DiMaria, 2015)
"trait impulsivity or trait anxiety, may be risk factors for developing future mood disorders."
Impuslivity--------ADHD--------ODD-----Conduct Dissorder-----Anti-social Behavior----Sociopath
Emerging understanding of Brain Plasticity
is challanging previous assumptions...
perhaps our belief that traits don't change
is due to our limited understanding rather than the clients capacity to change.
Historic Cornerstones for Neuroscience
Bottom Up
Top Down
Traumatic Car Wreck
Amigdala as the Smoke Alarm and the Medial Prefrontal Cortex as the watchtower.
emotions are faster than thought
Past Emotion and Present Response
Requires cognitive effectiveness; the client to know and understand what is going on with them while processing memories of the trauma
Passively shut down, dampens, or excites the body to function differently
Allows the body to have experiences that deeply and viscerally contradict helplessness, rage or collapse that result from trauma:
Heart-rate variability training, Neurofeedback, Mindfulness,Yoga, EMDR, Hypnosis, Trauma Theater, Tia chi, movement based therapies, expressive arts
Therapeutic Goals
Appropriately deal with the past
Enhance the quality of day to day experience
live full and securely in the present
Bring back brain structures that deserted the client during the trauma and complete
the fractured story and restore
a feeling of control
Learned Helplessness
Bessel van der Kolk, 2014

Bad events out of my control
I have no control
I am helpless
Physiological negative stimulus
reinforced belief
Helplessness leads to more extreme behavior
suicide, violence, negative health, more trauma
Mother's 8 Year follow-up
Heart-rate Variability Training or Heart Rhythm Analysis
The Default Mode Network
The resting state of the brain
Theory of mind
negatively correlated to hyper vigilance
Jerry's Story
Changes in Heart Transplant Recipients That Parallel the Personalities of Their Donors
(Pearsall, Schwartz & Russek, 1999)
"The basic principle of neuroplasticity is the idea that brain tissue, in some respects, works like muscle tissue: once it gets stimulated through exertion, it develops itself." quoting Norman Doidge (Wylie, 2014)

Adverse Childhood Experiences Reported by Adults --- Five States, 2009. (2010, December 17). Retrieved May 13, 2015, from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5949a1.htm, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 1609-1613.
DiMaria, L. (n.d.). The Differences Between Personality Trait and Mood State. Retrieved April 20, 2015, from http;/depression.about.com/od/symtpms/a/personality-trait-versus-mood-state.htm
Hirshberg, L., Chiu, S., & Frazier, J. (2005). Emerging brain-based interventions for children and adolescents: Overview and clinical perspective. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 14(1), 1-19.
Horn, A., Ostwald, D., Reisert, M., & Blankenburg, F. (2013). The structural-functional connectome and the default mode network of the human brain. NeuroImage 102: 142–151.
Hanson, R. (2014, January/February). The next big step-What's ahead in psychotherapy's fascination with brain science? Psychotherapy Networker, 19-25.
Ivey, A. Ivey, M. & Zalaquett, C. (2009, December 3). Counseling and neuroscience: The cutting edge of the coming decade. Counseling Today 52(6) 44.
McCraty, R., Atkinson, M., Tomasino, D., & Bradley, R. (2006). The coherent heart: Heart-brain interactions, psychophysiological coherence, and the emergence of system-wide order (Publication No. 06-022). Boulder Creek., CA: HeartMath Research Center, Institute of HeartMath.
McCraty, R., Atkinson, M., Tomasino, D., Tiller, W., & Watkins, A.D. (November 15, 1995). The effects of emotions of short-term power spectrum analysis of heart rate variability. The American Journal of Cardiology, 76(14) 1089-1093
Montes, S. (2013, November 25). The birth of the neuro-counselor? Counseling Today, 33-40.
Pearsall, P., Schwartz, G., & Russek, L. (1999). Changes in heart transplant recipients that parallel the personalities of their donors. Integrative Medicine, 2(2/3), 65-72.
Porges, S. (2011). The polyvagal theory: Neurophysiological foundations of emotions, attachment, communication, and self-regulation. New York: W. W. Norton.
Posner, M., & Raichle, M. (1994). Images of mind. New York: Scientific American Library.
Robbins, J. (2000). A symphony in the brain: The evolution of the new brainwave biofeedback. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press.
Shapiro, F. (2012). Getting past your past: Take control of your life with self-help techniques from EMDR therapy. Emmaus, PA.: Rodale Books.
Seligman, M., & Maier, S. (1967). Failure To Escape Traumatic Shock. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 74, 1-9.
Sterman, M. B., & Wyrwicka, W. (1967). EEG correlates of sleep: Evidence for separate forebrain substrates. Brain Research, 6(1), 143-163.
van der Kolk, B. (2014). The body keeps the score: Brain, mind, and body in the healing of trauma. New York, NY: Viking.
van der Kolk, B. (2007). Traumatic stress the effects of overwhelming experience on mind, body, and society (A. McFarlane & L. Weisaeth, Eds.). New York: The Guildford Press.
Willis, W., & Grossman, R. (1981). Medical neurobiology: Neuroanatomical and neurophysiological principles basic to clinical neuroscience (3rd ed.). St. Louis: Mosby.
Wilson, B. (Director) (2009). Clinical Applications and Interventions with Bruce Wilson, M.D.. Webinar Broadcast for Heart Math Interventions. Lecture conducted by HeartMath LLC, .
Wylie, M. S. (2014, January/February). Beyond Phrenology-Let's look at how the brain really works. Psychotherapy Networker, 35-39.

Amen, D., & Smith, D. (2010). Unchain your brain: 10 steps to breaking the addictions that steal your life. Newport Beach, Calif.: MindWorks Press.
The Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, Inc. http://www.aapb.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=1
Cartography of Consciousness: http://www.zengar.com/files/File/pdfs/Cartography_of_Consciousness.pdf
Childre, D., & Rozman, D. (2007). Transforming depression: The HeartMath solution to feeling overwhelmed, sad, and stressed. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications.
Demos, J. (2005). Getting started with neurofeedback. New York: W.W. Norton.
Doidge, N. (2007). The brain that changes itself: Stories of personal triumph from the frontiers of brain science. New York: Viking.
Fisher, S. (2014). Neurofeedback in the treatment of developmental trauma: Calming the fear-driven brain. New York, NY: Norton & Company.
Human Connectome project http://www.humanconnectomeproject.org/
The inside story. (2002). Boulder Creek, CA: HeartMath LLC.
International Society of Neurofeedback and Research http://www.isnr.net/index.cfm
Institute of HeartMath https://www.heartmath.org/
McHenry, B., Sikorski, A., & McHenry, J. (2014). A counselor's introduction to neuroscience. New York: Routledge.
Peniston, E.G., & Kulkosky, P.J. (1989). Alpha-theta brainwave training and beta endorphin levels in alcoholics. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Results, 13(2), 271-279.
Schwartz, M. (2003). Biofeedback: A practitioner's guide (3rd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.

The Body Keeps the Score by Bessel van der Kolk

Heartrate variability training see HeartMath.org

The Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback. aapb.org

International Society for Neurofeedback & Research isnr.org

EMDR International Association (EMDRIA) Emdria.org

Whole Life Perspective
Adverse Childhood Experience, 2009
Korbinian Bordmann anatomical descriptions
of brain funcion
Eugene O Peniston and Kulkosky
Alpha/Theta training
Peniston and Kulkosky

*Vets Chronic Alcohol Abuse
*Treatment compared to psychotherapy and control group

systematic desensitization
temperature biofeedback
guided imagery
constructed visualtization (rejection script)
rhythmic breathing
EEG alpha/theta training

increase alpha production
normalized personality measures (MCMI)
Prevention of increase beta-endophins
prolonged prevention relapse (Peniston flu)
<20% 9 year follow-up, 50% 18 months followup

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