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Module 2: Major approaches in

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Sunaina Attard

on 13 April 2017

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Transcript of Module 2: Major approaches in

Darwin and Evolutionary Psychology
Nature vs. Nurture
Nervous System
Human Nervous System
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Neurons (nerve cells).
Approx 100 billion.

Glial Cells.
Supporting cells.
make up 90% of cells in HNS

Gaps between neurons
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The Brain

The brain is the biological structure which influences behaviour more than any other.
Born from Darwin
Charles Darwin's (biologist) theory of evolution had four major effects on psychology.

Human psychology developed from biological perspective (Sigmund Freud)
Sensory Neurons

Motor Neurons


Brain Organisation
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Biological approach
Module 2: Major approaches in Psychology

Study of non-human species
(comparative psychology)

Heredity is important in development. Offspring. Nature vs. nurture.

Variation (survival of the fittest) Interest in individual differences
Evolutionary psychology stems from Darwin's ideas.

The notion that most of our behavior is adaptive.

What do you think?

Describe yourselves in 5 words.
These are some inborn characteristics

What are the sources of our individual differences?

1. Nature (heredity)
2. Nurture (environment)

Label your listed characteristics with the above accordingly.
Twin Studies
Monozygotic twins vs. Dizygotic twins.
1. Active Covariation
example children with high genetic ability read more books and receive more years of education.
2. Passive covariation
The role of the parents based on their genetic ability
3. Reactive covariation
how other treat the individual based on their genetic influenced behaviour
Plomin (1990)
The HNS is made up of two parts:

The Central Nervous System (CNS)
is made up of the brain and spinal cord and is considered to be the
coordination center

The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
is the messenger system which
carries information
from receptors cells to the CNS and back to the appropriate parts.

The PNS contains all the nerve cells (neurons) that are not in the CNS.
Somatic NS
Automatic NS
interactions with ext.env
body's internal env
Sympathetic NS
Parasympathetic NS
Both are essential.


Brain Regions
Limbic system
Cerebral Cortex

Studying the brain
Numerous techniques available for studying brain activity. They differ in how precisely they identify
brain activity occurs (spatial resolution) and
it occurs (temporal resolution).

fMRI (Functional magnetic resonance imaging- BOLD- blood oxygen-level-dependent contrast)
ERPs (event-related potentials)
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