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Transcript of Gender
WG. 4.3 Hypothesize about the impact of push factors and pull factors on human migration in selected regions and about changes in these factors over time.
Investigate and interpret multiple causation in analyzing historical actions, and analyze cause-and-effect relationships.
Clip from film: Bread and Roses
http://www.mymovies.it/trailer/?id=29346 For immigrant Latinos, the expectations to work, contribute to the family, and assume a traditional gender role often supersede their desire to attain a higher education. Fry (2005) notes that foreign-born school dropout rates are strongly linked to the age at which the teen migrates and the country that initially educated the teen. Foreign-born teens who arrive in the United States early in their childhood have a better chance of matriculating through the education system; however, teens whoarrive in late adolescence or who had education difficulties before immigrating have a high school dropout rate greater than 70% (Fry, 2005). The pressure to work once arriving in this country is even more urgent for this population of males (Fry, 2005). Many foreign-born Latino males who arrive in late adolescence are likely to be labor migrants. In effect, they come to the United States to work and not to attend college
Predation - Females face additional dangers in migrating to the United States. Border towns, such as Ciudad Juarez, hold dangers for all migrants especially females. Coyotes and other aspects of the organization of border-crossing may deter some females from attempting to cross. Chain Migration:
Impact of family
In 2001, the United States admitted 1,064,318 immigrants--enough people to create a major city the size of Chicago. Why is immigration so high? One of the reasons is chain migration. In chain migration, one immigrant sponsors several other immigrants for admission, who then sponsor several others themselves, and so on. Naturally, chain migration drives immigration numbers up; annual immigration has tripled since chain migration began in the mid-1960s and has led to additional millions consigned to visa waiting lists.
Labor & Gender
Especially in terms of undocumented immigrants, opportunities for work in the U.S. are quite different based on gender. This has an impact on the decision to migrate and the opportunities presented to migrants based on gender. Education & Gender Chain migration helps many females gain entry into the United States, by relying on family and community. Considering the following question: How does gender impact the choices that immigrant’s make both in the decision to migrate as well as the choices they make and opportunities they have once in the United States? Consider how gender impacts immigrants both while crossing into the United States as well as once they are in the country looking for work. How might this further impact the children of immigrants? Supplemental Resources
Boyd, M. (2003). Women and Migration: Incorporating Gender into International Migration Theory. Migration Policy Institute. Retrieved from http://www.migrationinformation.org/Feature/display.cfm?id=106
Fry, R. (2006). Gender and Migration. Pew Hispanic Center Online. Retrieved from http://pewhispanic.org/topics/?TopicID=16
Liberdad Latina Website. http://www.libertadlatina.org/Crisis_Lat_Mexico_Juarez_Femicide.htm
Powers, M. Seltzer, W. & Shi, J. (1998). Gender Differences in the Occupational Status of Undocumented Immigrants in the United States: Experience before and after Legalization. International Migration Review, Vol. 32, No. 4 (Winter, 1998), pp. 1015-1046. Published by: The Center for Migration Studies of New York, Inc. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/2547670
Saenz, V. & Ponjuan, L. (2009) The Vanishing Latino Male in Higher Education. Journal of Hispanic Higher Education. 8(54). Retrieved from http://jhh.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/8/1/54