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Gender Differences

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Anika Bohne

on 9 July 2009

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Transcript of Gender Differences

Gender Differences
Today, we'd like to present some
interesting facts about...
... in childhood:
... why they occur:
... if they may disappear some day:
... sexual orientations:
Introduction
The first year
The Power of Peers
Structure of playgroups
children have to figure out what it means to be a boy or girl within a particular society

gender role expectations for children are still strong:
Gender Role
Overview
Changing Roles
Culture and
gender Roles
Terminology
Sexual orien-
tation and
gender roles
Future Development
is defined as a set of perceived behavioral norms associated particularly with males or females, in a given social group or system

refers to an individual's "psychological type". It is acquired through experience. An individual can be viewed as either masculine or feminine

refers to the attitudes and behaviors that class a person's stereotypical identity, e.g. women cook and clean, men fix cars

Androgyne
Metrosexual
Intersexual
„There are cultures where it has been normal, not exceptional, for men to have homosexual relations. There have been periods in 'Western' history when the modern convention that men suppress displays of emotion did not apply at all, when men were demonstrative about their feeling for their friends.”
Male: adopting (or who is perceived as adopting) a female gender role might be described as effeminate, foppish, or sissy. Even more pejorative terms include mollycoddled, milquetoast, milksop, sop, mamma's boy, and namby-pamby
Female: adopting (or who is perceived as adopting) a male role might be described as butch, as a tomboy, or as an amazon . More pejorative terms include battleaxe
active conflict over the cultural acceptability of non-heterosexuality rages worldwide
Heterosexuality
physical differences are minimal
male infants do cry a bit more, have more disturbed sleep
strong religious traditions
economic factors
Parents have a preference for boys.
Sex selection
Characteristics of boy and girl babys
boys are actually more peer-oriented during development

boys like to play with other boys, while girls generally prefer other girls

Avoidance of the other sex becomes quite pointed in the elementary school years
girls tend to play with one or two “best friends”
Boys have larger friendship networks and play in groups with an internal
structure
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pWc1e3Nbc2g
= "straight"

WOMAN LOVES MAN,
MAN LOVES WOMAN
Sexual activity with another of the opposite sex
90% of the population
Homosexuality
Homosexuality refers to sexual attraction between people of the same sex
20% of the population reported some homosexual feelings
= "gay"
WOMAN LOVES WOMAN, MAN LOVES MAN
Bisexuality
WOMAN LOVES WOMAN AND MAN;
MAN LOVES MAN AND WOMAN
= "bi"
Sexual identity development: “Coming out process”
1.Phase: “Knowing oneself” internal coming out

2.Phase: Come out to related party

3.Phase: Living openly as a homosexual person
Same-sex-marriage

Pro: regard it as a human right to be able to enter into marriage regardless of sexual orientation

Contra: parenting concerns, tradition or religious grounds
Homosexuality legal
Same-sex marriage1
Other type of partnership (or unregistered cohabitation)2
Foreign same-sex marriages recognized
No recognition of same-sex couples
Homosexuality illegal
Minimal penalty
Large penalty
Life in prison
Death penalty
"Being bisexual doubles your chance of a date on Saturday night." Woody Allen.
Bisexual people do not feel that they fit into either the homosexual or the heterosexual world
Sexual behavior with physical attraction to people of both gender
About 10 % of the population consider themselves as bisexual
more women than men
The overlapping triangles
WHO IS BISEXUAL?
Person, who becomes an “ex gay” from homosexual to heterosexual
Person, who was heterosexual and becomes homosexual from homosexual to heterosexual
Asexuality
An asexual is someone who does not experience
sexual attraction
Jenny B. said:
"Obviously I'm not going to understand what sex means to sexuals because I am not sexual. I can try to understand it the best that I can, and I think I do a good job of it, to be honest. There's always just going to be that little part of me that's still going, "....but why?" because I am asexual and don't have the same needs as sexuals."
Itentity
no litmus test
about 9%
emotional needs as anyone else
feel a desire to get to know someone
What about attraction?
many asexual people experience attraction, but they feel no need to act out that attraction sexually
What about arousal?
for some asexuals a lot arousal occurs, for others just a little or no arousal occurs
feel no desire for partnered sexuality
own network called AVEN
Thank you for your attention!

Are there any questions?
Socialization
Biological Reasons
Interaction
Chromosomes
Hormones
Brain
"People are born female or male but learn to be girls and boys who grow into women and men. This learned behaviour makes up gender identity and determines gender roles." - WHO
the process whereby an individual learns to adjust to a group (or society) and behave in a manner approved by the group (or society). According to most social scientists, socialization essentially represents the whole process of learning throughout the life course and is a central influence on the behaviour, beliefs, and actions of adults as well as of children. - Britannica - The Online Encyclopedia
today:
in former times...
Evolutionary Theory of Gender
female
male
has to take care of one child longer and more intensive
less capacity for a new one
can "spread his input" in smaller doses on more children
qualitative strategy of reproduction
quantitative strategy of reproduction
BUT!
Taking care too complicated
males leave children probably dying
males:
females:
social roles related to warfare and fighting with outgroups
occupy social roles related to infant care
SO WHAT ABOUT RAISING CHILDREN WITHOUT SUPPORTING STEREOTYPES?

“Kinderläden”: anti-
authoritarian up-
bringing

Research: situations of conflict: aggressive or avoiding reaction?

Findings: in both types: boys more aggressive than girls
XY
XX
some characteristics can only be found on X-Chromosome
in males, recessive features can be put into effect more easily (e.g. bleeding disorder)

reason that male values of intelligence scatter over a much wider range?
Experiments: testosterone unborn female monkeys
didn’t nurture their offspring fought and behaved like male
Androgen
(Testosterone)
Estrogen
Genetic defect: congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)
choice
suit
competition
"The human brain, like the human body, is sexed, and differences in the sex-specific human brain condition a wide range of behaviors that we typically associate with maleness or femaleness."
(Nadeau, 1997)

Differences in older regions of brain and neocortex

Splenium in women much larger + more brain wave activity (connection)





Problem solving: females use both hemispheres
different results in IST (INTELLIGENZ STRUKTUR TEST)
males: space skills
females: verbal and memory skills
bioligical reasons?
socialized reason?
1. Androgens stop development of right hemisphere
left one develops more quickly and becomes dominant

2. Level of estrogen in females too high (perform better while menstruation)
in males a bit too low
verbal skills?
explorative
behaviour?
intensive training
differences nearly
disappear
difficult to predict

Sociologists say that most of all the development and spreading of the various religions will influence gender roles

uncertain economical development might stop the progress

( tolerance only works in culturally and economically established societies)
Full transcript