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Transcript of Gender Differences
Today, we'd like to present some
interesting facts about...
... in childhood:
... why they occur:
... if they may disappear some day:
... sexual orientations:
The first year
The Power of Peers
Structure of playgroups
children have to figure out what it means to be a boy or girl within a particular society
gender role expectations for children are still strong:
is defined as a set of perceived behavioral norms associated particularly with males or females, in a given social group or system
refers to an individual's "psychological type". It is acquired through experience. An individual can be viewed as either masculine or feminine
refers to the attitudes and behaviors that class a person's stereotypical identity, e.g. women cook and clean, men fix cars
„There are cultures where it has been normal, not exceptional, for men to have homosexual relations. There have been periods in 'Western' history when the modern convention that men suppress displays of emotion did not apply at all, when men were demonstrative about their feeling for their friends.”
Male: adopting (or who is perceived as adopting) a female gender role might be described as effeminate, foppish, or sissy. Even more pejorative terms include mollycoddled, milquetoast, milksop, sop, mamma's boy, and namby-pamby
Female: adopting (or who is perceived as adopting) a male role might be described as butch, as a tomboy, or as an amazon . More pejorative terms include battleaxe
active conflict over the cultural acceptability of non-heterosexuality rages worldwide
physical differences are minimal
male infants do cry a bit more, have more disturbed sleep
strong religious traditions
Parents have a preference for boys.
Characteristics of boy and girl babys
boys are actually more peer-oriented during development
boys like to play with other boys, while girls generally prefer other girls
Avoidance of the other sex becomes quite pointed in the elementary school years
girls tend to play with one or two “best friends”
Boys have larger friendship networks and play in groups with an internal
WOMAN LOVES MAN,
MAN LOVES WOMAN
Sexual activity with another of the opposite sex
90% of the population
Homosexuality refers to sexual attraction between people of the same sex
20% of the population reported some homosexual feelings
WOMAN LOVES WOMAN, MAN LOVES MAN
WOMAN LOVES WOMAN AND MAN;
MAN LOVES MAN AND WOMAN
Sexual identity development: “Coming out process”
1.Phase: “Knowing oneself” internal coming out
2.Phase: Come out to related party
3.Phase: Living openly as a homosexual person
Pro: regard it as a human right to be able to enter into marriage regardless of sexual orientation
Contra: parenting concerns, tradition or religious grounds
Other type of partnership (or unregistered cohabitation)2
Foreign same-sex marriages recognized
No recognition of same-sex couples
Life in prison
"Being bisexual doubles your chance of a date on Saturday night." Woody Allen.
Bisexual people do not feel that they fit into either the homosexual or the heterosexual world
Sexual behavior with physical attraction to people of both gender
About 10 % of the population consider themselves as bisexual
more women than men
The overlapping triangles
WHO IS BISEXUAL?
Person, who becomes an “ex gay” from homosexual to heterosexual
Person, who was heterosexual and becomes homosexual from homosexual to heterosexual
An asexual is someone who does not experience
Jenny B. said:
"Obviously I'm not going to understand what sex means to sexuals because I am not sexual. I can try to understand it the best that I can, and I think I do a good job of it, to be honest. There's always just going to be that little part of me that's still going, "....but why?" because I am asexual and don't have the same needs as sexuals."
no litmus test
emotional needs as anyone else
feel a desire to get to know someone
What about attraction?
many asexual people experience attraction, but they feel no need to act out that attraction sexually
What about arousal?
for some asexuals a lot arousal occurs, for others just a little or no arousal occurs
feel no desire for partnered sexuality
own network called AVEN
Thank you for your attention!
Are there any questions?
"People are born female or male but learn to be girls and boys who grow into women and men. This learned behaviour makes up gender identity and determines gender roles." - WHO
the process whereby an individual learns to adjust to a group (or society) and behave in a manner approved by the group (or society). According to most social scientists, socialization essentially represents the whole process of learning throughout the life course and is a central influence on the behaviour, beliefs, and actions of adults as well as of children. - Britannica - The Online Encyclopedia
in former times...
Evolutionary Theory of Gender
has to take care of one child longer and more intensive
less capacity for a new one
can "spread his input" in smaller doses on more children
qualitative strategy of reproduction
quantitative strategy of reproduction
Taking care too complicated
males leave children probably dying
social roles related to warfare and fighting with outgroups
occupy social roles related to infant care
SO WHAT ABOUT RAISING CHILDREN WITHOUT SUPPORTING STEREOTYPES?
Research: situations of conflict: aggressive or avoiding reaction?
Findings: in both types: boys more aggressive than girls
some characteristics can only be found on X-Chromosome
in males, recessive features can be put into effect more easily (e.g. bleeding disorder)
reason that male values of intelligence scatter over a much wider range?
Experiments: testosterone unborn female monkeys
didn’t nurture their offspring fought and behaved like male
Genetic defect: congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)
"The human brain, like the human body, is sexed, and differences in the sex-specific human brain condition a wide range of behaviors that we typically associate with maleness or femaleness."
Differences in older regions of brain and neocortex
Splenium in women much larger + more brain wave activity (connection)
Problem solving: females use both hemispheres
different results in IST (INTELLIGENZ STRUKTUR TEST)
males: space skills
females: verbal and memory skills
1. Androgens stop development of right hemisphere
left one develops more quickly and becomes dominant
2. Level of estrogen in females too high (perform better while menstruation)
in males a bit too low
difficult to predict
Sociologists say that most of all the development and spreading of the various religions will influence gender roles
uncertain economical development might stop the progress
( tolerance only works in culturally and economically established societies)