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Copy of Theories and Models of Career Counseling

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Robert De Leon

on 3 August 2014

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Transcript of Copy of Theories and Models of Career Counseling

Person-in-Environment/Multicultural Career Counseling Model for Ethnic Women
Other Theories
Ann Roe/Ginzberg Associates
Developmental/Career Development Assessment and Counseling(CDAC)
Developmental Theories
Social Learning and Cognitive/Cognitive-Information-Processing (CIP)
Social Learnings and Cognitive Theories
Trait-Oriented Theories
Multicultural Career Counseling Model for Ethnic Women
Career Development Assessment and Counseling(CDAC)
Cognitive Information Processing
Trait and Factor Models
Theories and Models of Career Counseling
Trait and Factor
Basic Assumption
Individuals have unique patterns of ability or traits that can be objectively measured and correlated with requirements of occupations

The primary goal of using assessment data was to predict job satisfaction and success. Contemporary practices stress the relationships between human factors and work environments. Test data are used to observe the similarity between client and current workers in a career field

Frank Parsons
(1854-1908) is known as the Father of Vocational Guidance
was an American professor, social reformer, and public intellectual

E.G. Williamson
a teacher, counselor, scholarly researcher, and administrator
Key Terms
Traits primarily refer to abilities and interest.
Parsons Three step model included studying the individual, surveying occupations, and matching the individual with an occupation.
Person Environment Correspondence Counseling
Basic Assumptions
Individuals bring requirements to a work environment, and the work environment makes it requirements of individuals. To survive, individuals and work environments must achieve some degree of congruence.
Rene V. Dawis
is an American psychology professor. He taught at University of Minnesota and is currently an emeritus professor. His work focused on individual differences, work adjustment, and human potential.

Lloyd H. Lofquist
professor emeritus of the Department of Psychology at the University of Minnesota
he started the university's Vocational Assessment Clinic, which provides information to people about their potential for success and satisfaction in various careers

George England
He list six key values that individuals seek to satisfy:
Achievement — conditions that encourage accomplishment and progress
Comfort — conditions that encourage lack of stress
Status — conditions that provide recognition and prestige
Altruism — conditions that foster harmony and service to others
Safety — conditions that establish predictability and stability
Autonomy — conditions that increase personal control and initiative
Key Terms
Personality structure is a stable characteristic made up of abilities and values. Ability dimensions indicate levels of work skills. Values are considered as work needs. Satisfactoriness refers to clients who are more achievement oriented. Satisfaction refers to more selfullfilled oriented clients. Work adjustment refers to a workers attempt to improve fit in a work environment.
John Holland: A Topological Approach
Basic Assumptions
Career choice is an expression of, or an extension of, personality into world of work. Individuals search for an environment that will let them exercise their skills and abilities, express their attitudes and values, and take on agreeable problems and roles. There are six kinds of occupational environments and six matching personal orientations.
Individuals are products of their environment. Stability of career choices depends on dominance of personal orientation. Individuals who fit a pure personality type will express little resemblance to other personality types. Clients who have many occupational goals have low identity. Congruence occurs when a clients personality type matches the corresponding work environment.
John L. Holland
The Holland Codes or the Holland Occupational Themes (RIASEC)
"Research shows that personalities seek out and flourish in career environments they fit and that jobs and career environments are classifiable by the personalities that flourish in them."
Key Terms
The six types categories for individuals and work environment -- Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional Consistency -- refer to personality, that is, those clients who relate strongly to one or more of the categories. Differentiation refers to those who have poorly defined personality styles. Identity refers to the degree in which one identifies with a work environment. Congruence is a good match between individual and work environment.
Trait and Factor
Person Environment
Correspondence Counseling
John Holland: A
Topological Approach
Trait and Factor Model
Seven sequential steps
1. Intake Interview Analysis - separate components
2. Identity Developmental Variables Synthesis -
make the components whole
3. Assessment Diagnosis - identify issues, thoughts and behaviors
4. Identify and Solve Problems Prognosis - predict and map out
5. Generate PEF Analysis
6. Confirm, Explore, and Decide Counseling
7. Follow-up
Person Environment Fit Model (PEF)
Career development is a lifelong process
Changes that individuals experience during the lifespan may affect career decisions and satisfaction
Career is only one aspect of life and must fit within one’s overall lifestyle
Client abilities (work skills) and values (work needs) are criterion used for selecting work environments. Work requirements determine reinforcers available by occupations. Knowledge of clients who are more achievement (satisfactoriness) or self fullfilled (satisfaction) oriented enhances career choice.
PEC Theory is the generalized version of the Theory of Work Adjustment (TWA)
OCEAN Five-factor model (Big Five)
Trait and Factor Model
7 Steps/Stages
How can you use assessments today?
Similarity Model: Provide means of evaluating occupations that are similar to you in important ways.
E.G. Williamson
a teacher, counselor, scholarly researcher, and administrator
Refers to the willingness to try new things and be open to new experiences.
Refers to the care a person gives to organization and thoughtfulness of others; dependability.
Refers to the dimension of personality referring to one's need to be with other people. Extroverts - people who are outgoing and sociable. Introverts - people who prefer solitude and dislike being the center of attention.
Refers to the emotional style of a person that may range from easygoing, friendly, and likeable to grumpy, crabby, and unpleasant.
Refers to the degree of emotional instability or stability.
(LTCC) Krumboltz
Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT)
Cognitive Information Processing (CIP)
(LTCC) Krumboltz
Attempt to simplify process of career selection based on life events
Four factors:
1.Genetic endowment
2. Environmental conditions and events
3. Learning experiences (observation and direct experiences)
4. Task approach skills
Krumboltz ~ LTCC Emphasizes
Model emphasizes importance of learning experiences and their effect on occupational selection.
Learning takes place through observation
Need to assist individual to understand validity of their beliefs (major component)
Krumboltz ~ LTCC
Happenstance Approach
Premise suggests chance events over one's lifespan can have positive and negative consequences that influence career choice Five critical client skills curiosity - persistence - flexibility - optimism - risk taking
Clients need to expand capabilities and interest
not assume occupations will remain stable
be empowered to take action
Career counselors need to play role in all career problems; not just occupational selection.
J. D. Krumboltz
Research Psychologist, U.S. Air Force (1955-1957);
Assistant Professor of Education and Psychology, Michigan State University (1957-1959);
Associate Professor of Education and Psychology, Michigan State University (1959-1961).
Cognitive Information Processing (CIP)
Career counselor's principal function is to identify client's needs and develop interventions to help client acquire knowledge and skills to address those needs.
Career problem solving a cognitive process that can be improved through CASVE procedure Problem solving heavily stressed
Career Counseling is a learning event.
Gary W. Peterson
His present research interests include cognitive processes in career problem solving & decision making & the application of chaos theory to career development and services in an information society
James Sampson Jr.
Florida State University

Robert C. Reardon
Florida State University
are based to some degree on the assumption that the factors that influence career choice and development are related to stages of personal and psychological development
Key Terms
CASVE involves the following generic processing skills: Communication (identifying a need), Analysis (interrelating problem components), Synthesis (creating likely alternatives), Valuing (prioritizing alternatives), and Execution (forming means-end strategies).
Social Cognitive Career Theory
This theory is imbedded in general social cognitive theory which blends cognitive, self, regulatory, and motivational processes into a life long phenomena. Personal and physical attributes, external environmental factors, and overt behavior all interact as casual influences on individual development.
Self-efficiency is strengthened with success as experienced in a performance domain and is weakened with repeated failures; outcome expectations are shaped by similar experiences. Personal goals and/or personal agency act to sustain behavior. Career choice is influenced by environmental factors. Overcoming barriers to choice is a significant goal of this theory.
Key Terms
Personal agency reflects how a person exerts power to achieve a solution. Triadic reciprocal interactions, as explained in the basic assumptions, are from Bandura's (1986) social learning theory.
Robert W. Lent
University of Maryland

Steven D. Brown PhD
Loyola Chicago University

Cognitive Information Processing
Krumboltz's Planned Happenstance
Cognitive Information Processing
The Five Stages of the CASVE
(Communication, Analysis, Synthesis, Valuing, Execution)
Cycle of Information Processing Skills Use in Career Decision-Making
Intended to enhance the link between theory and practice in the delivery of cost-effective career services for adolescents and adults. Our aim is to help individuals make an appropriate current career choice, and learn improved problem-solving and decision-making skills that will be needed for future choices.
Key Terms
- A career problem is defined as a gap between an existing state of affairs and an ideal state of affairs. The gap may be between an existing state (knowing I need to make a choice) and an ideal state (knowing I made a good choice). Common gaps in career problem solving involve occupational choice, program of study choice, and employment choice.

Problem Solving
- A series of thought processes in which information about a problem is used to arrive at a course of action to remove the gap between an existing and a desired state of affairs. The transformation of information in problem solving involves the recognition of a gap, analysis of its causes, the formulation of alternative courses of action, and the selection of one of these alternatives.

Decision Making
- Includes the problem-solving process, and also the cognitive, affective, and sometimes psychomotor processes that transform a chosen solution into action. Moving from the problem solution to action requires two additional components: first, the derivation of a plan or strategy to implement the solution; and second, the adoption of a risk-taking attitude and the making of a commitment to carry the plan to completion. The problem-solving components are thus a subset of the wider set of decision-making



Krumboltz's Planned Happenstance
FIVE Necessary skills:

(1) Curiosity
(2) Persistence
(3) Flexibility
(4) Optimism
(5) Risk taking

It is a whole other approach to career development. Instead of focusing on making firm decisions, this approach encourages ambiguity. He talks about the importance of recognizing the importance of learning how to recognize and use opportunities such as meeting a certain person by chance being casually introduced to an opportunity o a job, etc. From a counseling perspective, this may mean that rather than reducing anxiety, attempting to resolve ambiguity, find quick solutions, we actually encourage clients to be open minded, help them to be comfortable where they are and remain open to opportunities that present themselves.
J. D. Krumboltz
Research Psychologist, U.S. Air Force (1955-1957);
Assistant Professor of Education and Psychology, Michigan State University (1957-1959);
Associate Professor of Education and Psychology, Michigan State University (1959-1961).
Krumboltz challenges us to view ourselves as advocates for open-mindedness as a stance that may help one find direction.
Scholssberg's Adult Career Development Transition Model
Stories are important and listening to the clients story is at the root of this theory 3 major parts:
(1) Anticipated transition
(2) Unanticipated transition
(3) Nonevent transition
The context of events is very important to this theory.

Scholssberg's 4 S's
(1) Situation= what are the variables characterizing the transition that need to be understood? Trigger, timing where is the control, role change and duration - permanent or temporary.
(2) Self = Identify clients personal situation and psychological resources.
(3) Support = consider the environment, intimate relationships, family, friendship network, institutions,etc.
(4) Strategy = Are they able to deal with the world in an autonomous way? Can they handle ambiguity? Do they blame themselves for what happens? Do they have a sense of meaning and purpose? Do they have characteristics that contribute to resiliency? etc.
The process of transition:

a. Transition is pervasive
b. disbelief
c. sense of betrayal
d. confusion and anger
e. resolution

Life-span Life-Space Approach
Super's Theory
Conscription and Compromise:
A Developmental Theory of Occupational Aspirations
Life-span Life-Space Approach
Career development is multidimensional. There are developmental tasks through-out the life span. Vocational maturity is acquired through successfully accomplishing developmental tasks within a continuous series of life stages. Individuals implement their self-concept into careers that will provide the most efficient means of self-expressions. Success in one life role facilitates success in another.
Career development is a lifelong process occurring in stages. Self-concept is shaped through life experiences. Clients are involved in several life roles of child, students, leisurite, citizen, worker, spouse, homemaker, parent, and pensioners. All life roles affect one another. In development societal factors interact with biological psychological factors.
Key Terms
Stages of vocational development are Growth, Exploratory, Establishment, Maintenance, and Decline. Developmental tasks are Crystallization, Specification, Implementation, Stabilization, and Consolidation. Self-concept is the driving force that establishes a career pattern. Attitudes and competencies are related to career growth and identified as career Maturity
Donald Super
Conscription and Compromise
A key factor in career decision is self-concept that is determined by one's social class, level of intelligence, and experiences with sex typing. Individuals progress through four stages and learn to compromise based on generalizations of cognitive maps of occupations. Individuals are less willing to compromise job level and sex type.
Key Terms
Self-concept is one's view of self. Cognitive maps of occupations reflect dimensions of prestige level, masculinity/femininity, and field of work. Social space refers to a zone or view of where each person fits into society. Circumscription is the process of narrowing one's territory of social space or alternative. Compromise suggests individuals will settle for a good choice, but not best.
Linda S. Gottfredson
Dr. Gottfredson is Associate Professor of Education Studies at the University of Delaware
Super's Theory
Single most important idea was that career choice is a PROCESS not an event, he himself stated that his theory consisted of several loosely related propositions, hoping that someone else would find the glue to cement the theory together.
Concepts of Life
Theory is based on concepts of life-roles and life stages, into 5 maxicycles; however, transition occurs through minicycles which may involve going back through various stages before moving forward.

C-DAC= Career Development Assessment & Counseling. first session focuses on clients concerns, discussing information.
(1) Assessment of the importance of the work role in relationship to other life roles.
(2) Determination of the career stage career concerns of the client
(3) Identifying resources for making and implementing choices as well as assessing resources for adapting to the work world.
(4)Finally, the last stage focuses on assessment of the client's self concept and life.
Donald Super
Career Development Assessment and Counseling(CDAC)
Discusses Career-Development Assessment and Counseling model, which implements current development theory and uses innovative assessment measures and improved counseling methods to improve vocational and life career counseling. Focuses on assessment, treating interests and preferences as basic status data to be viewed in light of career maturity, salience of life roles, and values sought in life as moderator variables.
Donald Super
Adult Career Concerns Inventory (ACCI)
An instrument developed by Donald Super and his colleagues for use by counselors in facilitating adult career planning and exploration. The evolution of the instrument is reviewed from the early version that attempted to measure career development to the current form that assesses adults' awareness of the tasks associated with career adaptability. Also included is a discussion of relevant studies of the instrument's psychometric properties, practical applications, and possibilities for future research.
Super, Thompson, & Lindeman
Assessment of Life Roles and Work Roles Salience
The importance an individual places on a life role has been termed role salience by career theorist Donald Super. Often, a high degree of salience for multiple roles can cause role strain, especially when each role demands a substantial time commitment.
Donald Super
Dawis, R. V.
French, J. R. P., Jr., Caplan, R. D., & Harrison, R. V.
Kristof-Brown, A.L., Zimmerman, R.D., & Johnson, E.C.
Muchinsky, P. M., & Monahan, C. J.
Ten basic assumptions of this theory are outlined and explained in table 2.2. The word two over arching assumptions facilitate the growth of information - processing skills and enhance the client's ability to solve problems and make career decisions.
Career problem solving is primarily a cognitive process. Information processing can be improved through learning. Effective information-processing skills can empower individuals to determine their own destiny. Making career choices is a problem-solving activity.
Current Use
Individual development consists of four stages: orientation to size and power, orientation to sex roles, orientation to sexual valuation, and orientation to internal unique self. Socioeconomic background and intellectual level greatly influence self-concept. Occupational choices are determined by social space, intellectual level, and sex typing. Career choice is a process of elimination options through cognitive maps. Individuals compromise occupational choices because of accessibility. Circumscription of occupations occurs through self-awareness, sex type, and social class.
Stages are cyclical so counselors need to help clients understand that they are normal if they go back through earlier stages.
Scholssber's Adult Career Development Transition Model
Career Constructivism: A Developmental Theory of Vocational Behavior
Career Constructivism: A Developmental Theory of
Vocational Behavior
This theory focuses attention on contextual interactions over the life span. One's career development is constructed as individuals influenced and are influenced within environment systems. Clients are viewed as products of their environment. Vocational behavior is a core element in career construction theory.
Career construction theory focuses on assisting individuals with developmental tasks over the life span. It is a counseling process that helps clients construct and manage their careers. One overarching goal is to help individuals increase their realism in making career choices and transitions. To accomplish this goal one is to focus on understanding their vocational self-concept and validate their vocational identity. Each client's life story becomes a means of understanding self and subsequent focus for the future.
Key Terms
Self-concepts guide and evaluate one's behavior. Career patterns are primarily determined by a combination of parental status, one's educational level, traits, and self-concepts. Vocational maturity as a psychosocial construct is determined by one's level of vocational development. Life roles are interactive and are reciprocally shaped by each other. Developmental tasks in career construction include growth, exploration, crystallization, establishment, maintenance or management, and disengagement.
Mark Savickas
Person-in-Environment Perspective
A Contextual Explanation of Career
A Contextual Explanation of Career
As people and their environments interact, development can proceed long many different pathways, depending on how one influences the other. A developmental-contextual life span assumes that interacting with a changing environment provides a foundation for individuals to form their own development.
The study of actions is the major focus of the contextual viewpoint. Actions manifest behaviors, they are internal processes, and they have social meaning. Environmental actions are to be observed from a "wholeness", that is, the influence of events in which people engage. Events take shape as people engage. Events take shape as people engage in them, and the totality of the actions and events influenced participants.
Mark Savickas

Brown, Brooks
Key Terms
Contextualism is a method of describing events or actions in an individual's life and a way in which counselors understand influences in career development from an individual's environmental interactions. Actions refer to the whole context in which an action is taken, and how events take shape as people engage in them.
Multicultural Career Counseling Model for Ethnic Women
This model must also share the view that to be effective in understanding and evaluating their client’s career concerns, career
counselors need to understand their own experiences by being aware of the many cultural contexts in which they themselves live and how these contexts have shaped their career related opportunities,
values, and beliefs.

Systems theory examines the interconnections between internal and external variables that have an impact on a person’s career development. STF is also a theoretical lens that will allow for examination of both a macroanalysis of external influences on people’s lives while also facilitating a microanalysis of
factors that are relevant for the career and development of individual clients
A common approach to addressing women’s career development concerns has been the use of the ecological perspective. The ecological perspective can be used to aid career counselors in appreciating
the complexity of factors that shape the career patterns of women of color and white women. The ecological perspective also attempts to place both ethnicity and gender at the core of understanding
human behavior and how it affects career development
R. P. Bingham
University of Manchester

C. M. Ward
University of Manchester
Multicultural Career Counseling Model for Ethnic Women
Ann Roe: A Needs Approach
Ginzberg Associated
Ann Roe: A Needs Approach
Early childhood experiences and parenting style affect the needs hierarchy and the relationships of those needs to adult lifestyle. Those who choose nonperson-type jobs are meeting lower level needs for safety and security. Those who choose to work with other people have strong needs for affection and belonging.
Original position was that individuals who enjoy working with people were raised by warm accepting parents and those who avoid contact with others were reared by cold or rejecting parents. Current position is that there are other important factors that determine occupational choice not accounted for in her theory
Key Terms
Examples of person-oriented occupations are service, business contact, managerial, teaching, and entertainment. Nonperson- oriented occupations are technology, outdoors, and science.
Ann Roe
Columbia University
Ginzberg and Associates
Occupational choice is a developmental process covering 6 to 10 years beginning at age 11 and ending shortly after age 17. As tentative occupational decisions are made, other choices are eliminated.
Career choice is a developed precept of occupations subjectively appraised in sociocultural milieu from childhood to early adult. There are three stages of development from before age 11 to young adult.
Key Terms
Stages of career development are Fantasy, Tentative, and Realistic. In Fantasy, play becomes work oriented. In Tentative, there is recognition of work requirements and one's traits. In Realistic, one narrows down occupational choices.
Eli Ginzberg
Thank you!
by: Roberto De Leon
Ernest Tupes and Raymond Christal
J.M. Digman, Lewis Goldberg
Nancy K. Scholssberg
University of Maryland
Value-Based, Holistic Model of Career and Life-Role Choices and Satisfaction: Duane Brown
• Values are the fundamental building block of personality and considered most important in the career decision making process

David Tiedeman and R.P. O’hara
• Stresses the importance of ego identity and self-development
• A decision making paradigm that parallels Erickson’s psycho-social stages

Chaos Theory: Robert Pryor & Jim Bright
• The complexity of influences on career development make accurate predictability challenging.
• Elements of chaos theory that can be used to help counselors assist clients include:
• Complexity
• Emergence
• Nonlinearity
• Unpredictability
• Phase Shifts
• Attractors

Sociological Perspective on Work and Career Development
• Emphasize the interrelationship of psychological, sociological, and economic factors
• Status attainment theory, sociology of labor markets, race and gender, school processes, family effects, work commitment/environment


1914-1918 Army Alpha & Beta test administered to troops
1915 began publishing the Vocational Guidance Bulletin
1916 L.M. Terman published Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test
1917 Smith Hughes Act passed-funded vocational guidance
1927 Strong & Stanford introduced Strong Vocational Interest Blank
1927 Clark L. Hull published aptitude testing.
1930's Great Depression
1933 US Employment Services established
1938 Occupational Information & Guideline service established
1939 Dictionary of Occupational Titles published
1939 E.G. Williams published How to Counsel Students
1940 Army General Classification Test (AGCT) developed.
1942 Carl Rogers published Counseling and Psychotherapy
1944 Veteran Administration established
1946 George-Barden Act passed
1948 Occupational Outlook published
1951 Ginzberg, Ginsburg, Axelrad, Herma (Theory)
1956 Roe (Theory) -Blau, Gustad, Jessor, Parnes, Wilcox (Theory)
1957 Super (Theory)
1963 Tiedeman, O'Hara (Theory)
1966 Holland (Theory)
published career development theories

Late 1800's
Rise of Industrialism
significant change in the way people worked & lived
Significant loss of jobs in agricultural sector
Mental measurements movement flourished
1890 James M. Cattell introduced mental test
Between 1898-1907 Jeff Davis was a career counselor/principal for Central High, Detroit and Grand Rapids, Michigan.
1908 Frank Parsons (father of vocational guidance movement) founded Vocational Bureau of Boston
1910 First National vocational conference in Boston
1911 Meyer Bloomfield teaches Vocational Guidance at Harvard University.
1913 National Vocational Guidance Association (NVGA) was incorporated. Psychological and Industrial Efficiency published
1959 American College Testing Program (ACT) founded
1963 Amendments to Vocational Education Act
1964 Civil Rights Legislation enacted
1970 Career Education Movement
1976 National Occupational Information Coordinating Committee
1982 Joint Training Partnership Act (JTPA) enacted
1984 National Certified Career Counselors founded
1985 NVGA changed it name NCDA
1990 Internet offered career counseling websites
1992 American Disabilities Act (ADA) passed
1994 School to Work Opportunities Act passed
1998 Work Investment Act
1999 NCDA endorsed Council on Workforce
2001 World Trade Centers Attacked
2009 Federal Government declares Recession
Timeline 1850-1966
Timeline 1959-2009
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