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Decades Project 1940s

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Logan Burke

on 15 May 2011

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Transcript of Decades Project 1940s

1940s History of the 1940's World War 2 (1940-1945) World War was a global military conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, which involved most of the world's nations that formed two military alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history. Marked by significant events involving the mass death of civilians, including the Holocaust and the only use of nuclear weapons in warfare, it was the deadliest conflict in human history. By: Logan Burke II
Kadrien Darity
Hedrick Leonard Was the genocide of approximately six million European Jews during World War II. About 2/3 of the population of nine million Jews who had resided in Europe before the Holocaust were killed. Some people think that the Holocaust should also include the Nazis' genocide of millions of people in other groups. Holocaust Begins
May 20th, 1940 The United States of America’s Selective Training and Service Act of 1940

The Selective Training and Service Act, also known as the Burke-Wadsworth Act was passed by the United States Congress on September 25, 1940. It was the first peacetime conscription in the history of the United States. At first it required all men of the age 21 to 35 to register on the local draft boards. After the United State had entered World War 2 it allowed men ages 18 to 45 were liable for military service, and all men age 18 to 65 were required to register. It was eventually to be terminated by the Act of March 31, 1947. December 7, 1941
Bombing of Pearl Harbor

The bombing or attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike from the Imperial Japanese Navy during the morning of December 7, 1941. he attack was intended to keep the United States Pacific Fleet from interfering with the military actions of the Empire of Japan. December 8, 1941
“a date which will live in infamy”

The Infamy Speech was the Presidential Address to Congress of December 8, 1941. The speech was delivered at 12:30 p.m. to a Joint Session of Congress by the United States President at the time Franklin Delano Roosevelt, one day after the Empire of Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor Naval Base in Hawaii. The Infamy Speech was short, lasting around six and a half minutes. The speech or address is regarded as one of the most famous political speeches of 20th century. December 8, 1941
The United States of America Enters the War

Thirty-three minutes after the Infamy Speech Congress declared war on the Empire of Japan on December 8, 1941 in response to the United State’s surprise attack on Pearl Harbor the prior day. Due to the United States declaring war on the Empire of Japan, their allies Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy declared war on the United States. 1941
The End of the Great Depression

The United States entry into World War II finally eliminated the lasting effects from the Great Depression and brought the United States unemployment rate below 10%. The United States, massive war spending doubled economic growth rates, either covering up the effects of the Great Depression or essentially ending the Great Depression. Businessmen ignored the mounting national debt and heavy new taxes, redoubling their efforts for greater output to take advantage of generous government contracts. First United States Battle in WWII:
Battle of the Philippines

The Battle of the Philippines was an invasion by the Imperial Japanese Army and the defense of the islands by Filipino and United States Forces. The defending forces outnumber the Japanese 3 to 2 but were poorly trained and equipped, while the Japanese used the best first-line troops at the outset of the campaign. The Japanese high command, believing the had won the battle, made a strategic decision to advance. First American Victory in World War 2

After losing 14 battles, The Battle of Midway (regarded as the most important naval battle in WWII) was a turning point in the war. Between June 4th and 7th, 1942 approximately one month after the Battle of Coral Sea ( A strategic allied victory and also a Japanese victory) the United States Navy decisively defeated Imperial Japanese Navy attack against Midway Atoll, inflicting irreparable damage on the Japanese Fleet. August 23rd, 1942 – February 2nd, 1943
Battle of Stalingrad

The Battle of Stalingrad was a major battle of World War II in which Nazi Germany fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad, Russia. The battle took place between August 23rd, 1942 to February 2nd, 1943 and was among the longest on the Eastern Front, and was marked by its brutality and disregard for military and civilian casualties. It was amongst the bloodiest battles in the history of warfare with the combined casualties amounting to nearly two million deaths. In the defeat, the crippling losses suffered by Germany's military proved to be insurmountable for the war. The battle was a turning point in the war, making a German victory in the East impossible. April 1st – June 22nd, 1945
Battle of Okinawa

The Battle of Okinawa, was fought on the Ryukyu Islands of Okinawa and was the largest amphibious assault in the Pacific War. After a long campaign of island hopping, the Allies were approaching Japan, and planned to use Okinawa, a large island only 340 miles away from the Japanese mainland, as a base for air operations on the planned invasion of the Japanese mainland. The invasion was supported by naval, amphibious, and tactical air forces. June 6, 1944
Normandy Landings or D- Day

The Normandy landings were the landing operations of the Allied invasion of Normandy, also known as Operation Overlord or Operation Neptune during World War 2. The landings commenced on June 6, 1941 at 6:30 AM. The assault was launched in two phases: an airborne assault landing 24,000 Allied troops shortly after midnight, and an amphibious landing of Allied Infantry and armored divisions at the coast of France. There were also decoy operations mounted under the codenames Operation Glimmer of Operation Taxable to distract German forces from the real landing area. The operation is known as largest amphibious assault in the world’s history. The landings were a decisive victory for the allies, giving them the beachhead in Normandy, France. Death of Franklin D. Roosevelt
April 12th, 1945

On April 12, Roosevelt said, "I have a terrific pain in the back of my head." He then slumped forward in his chair, unconscious, and was carried into his bedroom. The his’ attending cardiologist, diagnosed a massive stroke. At 3:35 pm that day, Roosevelt died. After Roosevelt's death an editorial by The New York Times declared, "Men will thank God on their knees a hundred years from now that Franklin D. Roosevelt was in the White House". Battle of Berlin
April 16th, 1945 – May 2nd, 1945

One of the bloodiest battles in history. On January 16th 1945, the Red Army breached the German front as a result of the Vistula–Oder Offensive and advanced westward as much as 40 kilometers a day, through East Prussia, Lower Silesia, East Pomerania, and Upper Silesia, temporarily halting on a line 60 kilometers east of Berlin along the Oder River. During the offensive, two Soviet fronts attacked Berlin from the east and south, while a third overran German forces positioned north of Berlin. The battle ended on May 2nd, 1945. April 27th, 1945
Death of Benito Mussolini

As Allied forces closed in on Milan, Mussolini was captured by Italian partisans. He was trying to flee from Italy to Switzerland by a German anti-aircraft battalion. On April 28th, 1945 Mussolini was executed in Giulino, Italy; the other Fascist captured with him were taken to Dongo, Italy and executed. The bodies were taken to Milan and hung for public display in one of the main squares of the city. April 30th 1945
The Death of Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler committed suicide by gunshot or by ingesting poison in his Fuhrerbunker in Berlin along with his wife Eva Braun who ingested poison. Victory in Europe Day
May 7th, 1945

The date when the World War II Allies accepted the unconditional surrender of the armed forces of Nazi Germany and the end of Adolf Hitler's Third Reich. The formal surrender of the occupying German forces in the Channel Islands was not until May 9, 1945. On April 30th, Adolf Hitler committed suicide during the Battle of Berlin, and so the surrender of Germany was authorized by his replacement, Karl Donitz the President of Germany. The administration headed by Donitz was known as the Flensburg government. The act of military surrender was signed on May 7th in Reims, France, and ratified on May 8th in Berlin, Germany. Victory Day
May 9th, 1945

Marks the defeat of Nazi Germany to the Soviet Union in World War 2. It was first inaugurated in the fifteen republics of the Soviet Union, following the signing of the surrender document late in the evening on May 8th, 1945. It happened after the original defeat that Germany earlier agreed to the joint Allied forces of the Western Front. The Soviet government announced the victory on May 9th after the signing ceremony in Berlin. Though the official inauguration happened in 1945, the holiday became a non-labour day only in 1965 and only in some of the countries. August 6th and 9th, 1945
Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima & Nagasaki

During the final stage of World War 2, the United States conducted two atomic bombing against the cities of Hiroshima & Nagasaki in Japan. These two events are the only active deployment of nuclear weapons in war to date. For six month before the atomic bombing, the United States intensely fire-bombed 67 Japanese cities. Due to the Japanese ignoring the United States call for surrender, the United States dropped the nuclear weapon “Little Boy” on the city of Hiroshima, followed by the detonation of “Fat Man” on Nagasaki. Victory over Japan Day
August 14th, 1945

The day on which the Surrender of Japan occurred, ending World War II, and subsequent anniversaries of that event. The term has been applied to both the day on which the initial announcement of Japan's surrender was made in the afternoon of August 15, 1945, in Japan, and because of time zone differences, to August 14, 1945, as well as to September 2, 1945, when the signing of the surrender document occurred. On September 2, 1945, a formal surrender ceremony was performed in Tokyo Bay, Japan aboard the battleship USS Missouri. The Cold War Begins
May 22nd, 1947

Beginning in 1947 the Cold War involved political conflicts, military tensions, proxy wars, and economic competition between the Soviet Union mostly and its satellite states primarily the United States. Although the chief military forces never engaged in a major battle with each other, they expressed the conflict through military coalitions, strategic conventional force deployments, extensive aid to states deemed vulnerable, proxy wars, espionage, propaganda, conventional and nuclear arms races, appeals to neutral nations, rivalry at sports events, and technological competitions such as the Space Race. Berlin Blockade Begins
June 24th, 1948

The Berlin Blockade was one of the first major international crisis of the Cold War and the first resulting in casualties. During the multinational occupation of post-World War II Germany, the Soviet Union blocked the Western Allies' railway and road access to the sectors of Berlin under Allied control. Their aim was to force the western powers to allow the Soviet zone to start supplying Berlin with food and fuel, thereby giving the Soviets practical control over the entire city. The People’s Republic of China is Formed
October 1st, 1949

Major combat in the Chinese Civil War ended in 1949 by the Communist Party of China, who were against the Republic of China. The Communist Party of China was now in control of the mainland of China, while the Republic of China retreated to Taiwan. On October 1st, 1949 Mao Zedong officially proclaimed The People’s Republic of China. “Communist China” or “Red China” were two of the names given to The People’s Republic of China. Science & Technological First The Slinky

Invented by Richard James in 1941
Toy purpose was discovered when Richard James accidentally knocked it of his work table
Originally designed to hold nautical instruments steady in rough seas
First four hundred units were sold in 90 minutes and nearly caused a consumer riot. Color Television

Was built in 1949 and due to the widespread of Monochrome television, it was test marketed for several years. The test marketing show that many people love Color Television and in 1951 it was released for commercial selling. The Atomic Bomb

Was designed for advanced warfare use. It was invented and designed by several scientist who were working with “The Manhattan Project.” Three bomb were originally built “Gadget,” Little Boy,” and “Fat Man.” Gadget was detonated in Los Alamos, New Mexico in early 1945. The other two were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagaski causing over 240,000 deaths. The Jeep

During World War II the United States Army recognized the need for a fast, lightweight all-terrain vehicle. The United States put a tender to automotive companies to created a working prototype. The company that won the battle of the prototypes was Willy’s Truck Company with their MB model. Nicknamed the “Jeep” the vehicle was adopted with great success on the battlefield. After World War 2 the “Jeep” was adopted by the United States Postal Service and being sold commercial well into the modern era. fElectronic Digital Computer

The Atanasoff-Berry Computer was the world's first electronic digital computer. It was built by John Vincent Atanasoff and Clifford Berry at Iowa State University and finished during 1942.It incorporated several major innovations in computing including the use of binary arithmetic, regenerative memory, parallel processing, and separation of memory and computing functions. Tupperware

Tupperware was invented by Earl Tupper, a New Hampshire tree surgeon and plastics innovator, who began experimenting with polyethylene, a new material (invented in 1942) used primarily for insulation, radar, and radio equipment. He patented the Tupperware seal in 1947, but more importantly used the revolutionary marketing concept of the "Tupperware Party" to sell the product, a unique and innovative way of marketing directly to housewives. Silly Putty

In 1943 James Wright, an engineer, was attempting to create a synthetic rubber. He was unable to achieve the properties he was looking for and put his creation on the shelf as a failure. A few years later, a salesman for the Dow Corning Corporation was using the putty to entertain some customers. One of his customers became intrigued with the putty and saw that it had potential as a new toy. Eventually it would be used as a grip strengthener and as an art medium. Pop Culture Fashion Zoot Suit

Is a suit with high-waisted, wide-legged, tight-cuffed, pegged trousers, and a long coat with wide lapels and wide padded shoulder. This style was popularized by African-Americans, Mexican-Americans, and Italian-Americans.Due to the war production was cut by the government due to too much fabric. This caused Zoot Suit Riots. Afterward wearing the suit was a declaration of freedom and self-determination. Wartime Restrictions

Even with the challenges imposed by shortages in rayon, nylon, wool, leather, rubber, metal (for snaps, buckles, and embellishments) and even the amount of fabric which could be used in any one garment, the fashion industries wheels kept chugging slowly along, producing what it could. After the fall of France, Hollywood drove fashion in the United States almost entirely, as America's own rationing hit full force, and the idea of function seemed to overtake fashion, if only for a few short months until the end of the war. Fabrics shifted dramatically as rationing and wartime shortages controlled import items such as silk and furs. Convertible Suit

A jacket, short skirt, and blouse. The jacket could be shed for more formal attire at night. Silk stockings were unavailable, so, to give the illusion with stockings with their prominent seam, women would draw a line up the backs of their legs with an eyeliner. Fads Jitterbug

Exuberant ballroom dance popular in the 1940s, originating in the United States and spread internationally by United States army during World War II. Its original freewheeling acrobatic swings and lifts were modified for more conservative ballroom versions. Couples did most versions while holding one or both hands. Step patterns varied widely and included such dances as the lindy hop. Bebop

Bebop is a style of jazz characterized by fast tempo, instrumental virtuosity and improvisation based on the combination of harmonic structure and melody. It was developed in the 1940s. It first surfaced in musicians' argot some time during the first two years of American involvement in the World War 2. Rosie the Riveter

Is a cultural icon of the United States, representing the American women who worked in factories during World War II, many of whom worked in the manufacturing plants that produced munitions and war supplies. These women sometimes took entirely new jobs replacing the male workers who were in the military. The character is considered a feminist icon in the U.S. Victory Gardens

Were vegetable, fruit and herb gardens planted at private residences and public parks in United States, United Kingdom, Canada and Germany during World War II to reduce the pressure on the public food supply brought on by the war effort. In addition to indirectly aiding the war effort these gardens were also considered a civil "morale booster,” so that the gardeners could feel empowered by their contribution of labor and rewarded by the produce grown. This made victory gardens become a part of daily life on the home front. 1940s Slang

Ameche – To telephone
B.Y.T. – Bright Young Things
Bag – To shoot down a plane
Pennies from Heaven – Easy money
Pass the Buck – Pass responsibility for
Hi-De-Ho – Hello
Fuddy-Duddy – Old-fashioned person
Eager Beaver – Enthusiastic helper
City Slicker – dandy from the city
Bunny – to chat Visual Arts of the 1940s Art Abstract Expressionism

Was an American post–World War II art movement. It was the first specifically American movement to achieve worldwide influence and put New York City at the center of the western art world, a role formerly filled by Paris. Although the term "abstract expressionism" was first applied to American art in 1946 by the art critic Robert Coate. The movement's name is derived from the combination of the emotional intensity and self-denial of the German Expressionists with the anti-figurative aesthetic of the European abstract schools such as Futurism, the Bauhaus and Synthetic Cubism. Additionally, it has an image of being rebellious, anarchic, highly idiosyncratic and, some feel, nihilistic. Architecture

In 1940s architecture, nonessentials were eliminated, and simplicity became the key element. In some cases, such as Ludwig Mies van der Rohe's famous glass house, even practicality was ignored. Modern glass-and-steel office buildings began to rise after the war ended. Pietro Belluschi designed the prototype Equitable Savings and Loan building, a "skyscraper" of twelve stories. Eliel Saarinen utilized contemporary design, particularly in churches. The dream home remained a Cape Cod. After the war, suburbs, typified by Levittown, with their tract homes and uniformity, sprang up to house returning GI's and their new families. The average home was a one level Ranch House, a collection of previously unaffordable appliances surrounded by minimal living space. The family lawn became the crowning glory and symbol of pride in ownership. Literature

The decade opened with the appearance of the first inexpensive paperback. Book clubs proliferated, and book sales went from one million to over twelve million volumes a year. Many important literary works were conceived during, or based on, this time period, but published later. Thus, it took a while for the horror of war and the atrocities of prejudice to come forth. Nonfiction writing proliferated, giving first-hand accounts of the war. The first edition of Dr. Benjamin Spock's Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care is considered by some to have changed child rearing. Entertainment Radio

The radio was the lifeline for Americans in the 1940’s providing news, music and entertainment. Programming included soap operas, quiz shows, children’s hours, mystery stories, fine drama, and sports. Kate Smith and Arthur Godfrey were popular radio hosts. The government depended on the radio for propaganda. Like the movies, the radio faded in popularity when TV’s came out. Television

At the end of the war, only 5000 TV sets with five inch black and white screens were in American homes. The Original Amateur Hour, a revival of a popular radio show, was the first top-rated show in 1948. Milton Berle's slapstick comedy, Texaco Star Theater, was credited with creating the demand for televisions. Its greatest rival was Ed Sullivan's Toast of the Town. Sports

WWII had its effects on the war as all healthy men between 18 and 26 were expected to serve the military. Rubber went to the war effort; consequently the balls were soggy and unresponsive. Wood was short in supply, leading to shortages in baseball bats and bowling pins. Jackie Robinson became the first black professional baseball player in 194 and the first black professional athlete outside of boxing. Boxing was big money mainly because of gambling. Joe Louis, Sugar Ray Robinson, Willie Pep, and Ike Williams were big names in boxing at the time. Cartoons

Cartoons were a major sign of the 1940s (during the time), as cartoon studios gave aided the war effort by creating cartoons that were both very funny and patriotic, and also reminded movie-goers of important wartime activities such as rationing and scrap drives, war bond purchases, and the creation of victory gardens. Der Fuehrer's Face Donald Gets Drafted The Spirit of '43 Popular Actors & Actresses Bill Robinson Humphrey Bogart Jimmy Stewart Cab Calloway Hattie McDaniel Elizabeth Taylor Lana Turner Joan Crwaford Popular Movies from the 1940s It's a Wonderful Life Citizen Kane The Great Dictator Casablanca Fantasia Notorious
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