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Latin America- 1450-1750
Transcript of Latin America- 1450-1750
1450-2750 Meagan McCliment, Kylee Shinkle,
Brittany Borzillo, Briana Brinkman,
Patrick Charles, Isabel Joy Ainsworth Theme 1:
Interaction between humans and the environment Theme 2:
Belief systems, philosophies, and ideologies. Brittany Borzillo Theme 3:
State-Building, expansion, conflict. #10-13 Briana Brinkman #9 (theme 3) #17 and 18 (theme 4) Patrick Charles Theme 4. #14-16 Isabel Joy Ainsworth Theme 5 El Fin Muchos Gracias! Meagan McCliment Kylee Shinkle Religion Christianity was being spread by missionaries from Europe. Latin, Spanish, and Christian doctrine. Christian missionaries resisted against in Mexico and Peru, though Spanish authorities sponsored the Roman Catholic Faith and tried to remove worship of Pagan Deities. Christianity won adherents in Spanish America, and many Native Leaders in Mexico believed their gods had abandoned them and turned to the missionaries for spiritual guidance. English and French missionaries were far less successful. Blending of native and foreign religions occurred. After the Spanish and Portuguese established colonies in Latin America and the great empires/chiefdoms had fallen, everything changed. The once monarchic society was now an imperial colony. The peninsulares were the highest on the hierarchy under the King and Queen of Spain or Portugal. The Creoles came next, then the metizos and finally the slaves imported from Africa. There was no industrialization in Latin America at the time, only agricultural production of raw material were gathered and shipped to Europe; examples, sugarcane and coffee. In Latin America at this time, there was no capitalization or socialism because of the lack of industrialization and their focus on agricultural production. Spaniards ended up settling mostly in the Caribbeans and Mexico. Spanish missionaries and authorities went mainly to Peru and Mexico. Portuguese people, along with some Spanish, created colonies in Latin America. They then created imperial colonies. When they arrived they brought diseases such as smallpox, which harmed the natives such as the Aztecs. This caused many natives to die and their societies to crumble. They also brought with them livestock and crops that native Latinos had never seen before, such as pigs. Along with all of this they brought weapons such as guns. These weapons were quickly used against the natives. Empires were beginning to be removed from society at this point because industrialization was occurring. Latin American empires were virtually nonexistent, and the continent became colonized. The colonies were worked for raw materials and manufactured goods, all by slave labor. Spain had most of the land while, Portugal had Brazil, and France and Dutch had a small area of land.
Spain's territories were referred to as New Spain. Portugal's territory was Brazil. The French had the small land of Guinea. There wasn't much nationalism before revolution started.
They hadn't begun yet
The complete decimation of native peoples finally occurred through both disease and weaponry. The colonies were beginning to have codified law set by the countries whom claimed them, and viceroys were coming into power. The viceroys were set into place by the sovereign nation that held responsibility for the colony. Gender Roles and Relations Men Women More powerful than women
Would do most fighting, hunting, and labour services
The chiefs were male. Were desired by European males for mating purposes
Bore children, raised children Family and Kinsmen Definitely a paternal society. When Europeans arrived, there were little-to-no white women, so mixed families began to evolve as well. Racial and Ethnic Constructions White Europeans:
born in Europe Creoles: whites born
in Latin America Mestizos: kids of
Portuguese and natives Mulattos: kids of
Africans and Europeans Zambos: kids of Africans
and natives Tainos and Africans:
Slaves! The further the arrow goes, the darker the skin color of the stereotypical person Social Classes Peninsulares : most power (UC) Criollos: not as much power (MC) Mestizos: mixed blood (LC) Tainos and Africans: Slaves Philosophies and Technologies Education and philosophies increased significantly due to the Catholic church establishing schools and other centers of education. Despite this, academic philosophies was not prominent in Latin America in this time period. Art and Architecture A large amount of cathedrals were built. Religions art was one of the most promiment forms of art as well. Technology not relatively advanced and main aquired from cross-cultural trading. The agricultural and pastoral production between the 1450s and 1750s was much the same as it had always been. Countries had not yet industrialized for much of this time, and therefore still relied on manual labor as opposed to factory workings.
The trade during this time had evolved from what it had once been. By this time in history many countries had discovered new routes by sea allowing them to cut time and cost in trading amongst countries. These new sea routes also allowed for safe passage of traders (minus the threat of pirates) as they did not have to worry about being robbed on the side of a road for the most part.
Labor systems at this time relied mostly on animals and towards the later part in this time zone, they did rely on factories. For the majority of this time period labor was manual or animal, but not until the industralization did labor become reliant on factory workers with machines.