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Luther Breaks with the Catholic Church
Transcript of Luther Breaks with the Catholic Church
--Pope Boniface VIII, Unam Sanctam (Promulgated November 18, 1302) "Of the one and only Church there is one body and one head, not two heads like a monster…" We are informed by the texts of the gospels that in this Church and in its power are two swords; namely, the spiritual [the Catholic hierarchy] and the temporal [the European monarchy]. …However, one sword ought to be subordinated to the other and temporal authority, subjected to spiritual power. …[For] it is a law of the divinity that the lowest things reach the highest place by intermediaries. Then, according to the order of the universe, all things are not led back to order equally and immediately, but the lowest by the intermediary, and the inferior by the superior. … Furthermore, we declare, we proclaim, we define that it is absolutely necessary for salvation that every human creature be subject to the Roman Pontiff. 1309 to 1378: The papacy moved to Avignon, France.
1377: The papacy returned to Rome, but a second French pope was also elected.
1378 to 1417: Crisis in Europe! Avignon, Rome, and Pisa all put forward a pope (or antipope, depending on your perspective), creating a schism that threw European politics into turmoil and badly damaged the unity of the church. The Mass was conducted almost exclusively in Latin, even though very few parishioners and a certain number of clergy had no training in the language. Bibles were also almost always in Latin. Corruption was rampant in the Catholic church. Popes often behaved more like princes, the College of Cardinals lobbied for the interests of European monarchs, and local bishops behaved like bankers and lawyers more than spiritual shepherds. Notre Dame Cathedral, Paris The Ascension of the Virgin Prophets and Kings of the Old Testament The Death of the Virgin Mary The Ascension and Coronation of the Virgin Mary Stained Glass Window, Chartres The Wedding at Cana The steward brings the 'miracle wine' to Jesus Mary Confers with Jesus Cologne Cathedral, Altarpiece of the Magi, c. 1500 Papal indulgences, originally granted in exchange for acts of penance or pilgrimage, could now be bought with a donation to the church. Salvation was given a price. Humanism was a major academic movement that sought to reclaim ancient and classical texts. It emphasized individualism, the power of the human spirit, and led to a burgeoning anticlericalism. John Wycliffe was an English scholar who translated the Bible into English in the late 1300s at a time when such translations went against the rules of the Catholic Church. Wycliffe was posthumously declared a heretic, and in 1428, forty-four years after his death, his body was dug up and burned. Luther's Early Life Martin Luther was born on 10 November 1483 in Eisleben, Saxony.
During his childhood schooling, Luther was influenced by the Brothers and Sisters of the Common Life, a movement of clergy and laypeople devoted to simple Christian piety.
In 1501, at the age of 19, he entered the University of Erfurt. He received his master's degree in 1505. "I lost touch with Christ the Savior and Comforter, and made of him the jailer and hangman of my poor soul." Later that year, on 2 July 1505, Luther was caught in a thunderstorm. Fearing death and divine judgment, he invoked the protection of the Virgin Mary's mother, crying out, "Help! Saint Anna, I will become a monk!" Keeping his vow, he entered a monastery in Erfurt just over a month later.
As a monk, Luther felt keenly his own guilt before God, and fell into deep spiritual despair. Luther the Monk The House where Martin Luther lived, 1498-1501 The University of Erfurt Luther the Scholar In 1507, Luther was ordained to the priesthood. In 1508, he was called to teach theology at the newly founded University of Wittenberg, where he spent the rest of his career as a professor and scholar. While wrestling with the meaning of the phrase, "the righteousness of God" in Romans, Luther suddenly realized that divine righteousness was not God's punishment of sinners, but God's merciful justification of sinners through faith--God's loving choice to make sinners right with God. "Now I felt exactly as though I had been born again, and I believed that I had entered Paradise through widely opened doors." Luther the Rebel Luther continued to publish critiques of the papacy. He rejected all sacraments except Baptism and the Eucharist, and soon discovered the weakest link of the church's sacramental system: indulgences. In 1517, Luther took part in an academic debate over the sale of indulgences. As was customary, he posted his arguments to the door of Wittenberg Cathedral for his fellow scholars to read. This routine act became the catalyst to the movement we now know as... Luke 1:1 In the beginning was the word, and the word was at God, and God was the Word, this was in the beginning at God. 5. The pope has neither the will nor the power to remit any penalties beyond those imposed either at his own discretion or by canon law.
28. It is certainly possible that when the money clinks in the bottom of the chest avarice and greed increase; but when the church offers intercession, all depends in the will of God.
35. It is not in accordance with Christian doctrines to preach and teach that those who buy off souls, or purchase confessional licenses, have no need to repent of their own sins.
45. Christians should be taught that he who sees a needy person, but passes him by although he gives money for indulgences, gains no benefit from the pope's pardon, but only incurs the wrath of God.
81. This unbridled preaching of indulgences makes it difficult for learned men to guard the respect due to the pope against false accusations, or at least from the keen criticisms of the laity. The Reformation in Full Swing Luther never intended to start a revolution with his Ninety-Five Theses, but, with the help of the printing press, his critique of indulgences opened the door to a full-on challenge of the papacy. Within two months, Luther's ideas had spread throughout Europe, prompting a rebuttal from more traditional theologians. The Dominican Johann Tetzel warned that "Everyone will interpret Scripture as takes his fancy... and all sacred Christendom must come into great spiritual danger when each individual believes what pleases him most." In 1520, a papal decree declared Luther's ideas to be "heretical, offensive, erroneous, scandalous for pious ears, corrupting for simple minds, and contradictory to Catholic teaching." Luther was given sixty days to recant his challenge to the papacy. Instead, he publicly burned the papal decree. He was excommunicated in January 1521, and a few months later the Edict of Worms declared it illegal to give food or shelter to Luther and his supporters but made it legal to kill him on sight. Luckily, Luther soon fell under the protection of the German Prince of Saxony, Frederick the Wise, and so was able to continue publishing against the Church. Hiding in one of the Prince's castles, Luther grew a beard and went by the alias of Junker Jorg. Luther's teachings were easily accepted by local political leaders, who were eager to assert their authority over Rome's. The Protestant Reformation is thus sometimes called a "magisterial" Reformation because it relied upon local magistrates for the religious conversion of the cities. "The chief cause that I fell out with the pope was this: the pope boasted that he was the head of the Church, and condemned all that would not be under his power and authority; for he said, although Christ be the head of the Church, yet, notwithstanding, there must be a corporal head of the Church upon earth." "They who, against God's Word, boast of the Church's authority, are mere idiots. The pope attributes more power to the Church, which is begotten and born, than to the Word, which has begotten, conceived, and born the Church." "We, through God's grace, are not heretics, but schismatics, causing, indeed, separation and division, wherein we are not to blame, but our adversaries, who gave occasion thereto, because they remain not by God's Word alone, which we have, hear, and follow." "I fall upon the pope's soul, his doctrine, with God's word, not regarding his body, that is, his wicked person and life. I not only pluck out his feathers... but I set the knife to his throat, and cut his windpipe asunder. We put the goose on the spit; did we but pluck her, the feathers would soon grow again." "If the pope were the head of the Christian Church, then the Church were a monster with two heads, seeing that St. Paul says that Christ is her head." 1526 First Diet of Speyer: each Prince could decide if Lutheran teachings and worship would be allowed in his territories
1529 Second Diet of Speyer: everyone has to be Catholic
1530 Diet of Augsburg: defined Lutheranism and established Lutheran territories
1546: Luther died
1547: War broke out between an alliance of Lutheran princes and the Holy Roman Imperial forces
1555 Peace of Augsburg: secured religious freedom for the Lutherans and legalized the division of Christendom Luther's Theology For Luther, righteousness was a free gift from God, not earned by human good works.
"This one and firm rock, which we call the doctrine of justification, is the chief article of the whole Christian doctrine, which comprehends the understanding of all godliness." Justification Sacrament Only baptism and the Lord's Supper are sacraments, meaning they are ritual signs of God's grace.
Christ's body is not actually present in the Lord's Supper, which is only a symbolic act. Priesthood of All Believers God does not make hierarchical distinctions among Christians. All Christians are "priests" before God. Law and Gospel Adherence to the law of the Old Testament without recognition of the grace of the gospels leads to slavery, not free faith. Lucas Cranach, Law and Gospel. While Protestants rejected the idea of sacred images, they too relied on pictures to get their point across.