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To What Extent is Organ Trade Ethical?

TOK Presentation
by

Lena Huck

on 22 February 2013

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Transcript of To What Extent is Organ Trade Ethical?

To What Extent is Organ Trade Ethical? Content Defining Organ Trade Why is there a demand for Organ Trade? Organ Trade: An Ethical Solution? Knowledge Issues:
Why is there a demand for organ trade?
How does Organ Trade Operate?
What causes people to donate their organs?
Should Organ trade be legalized?

Real Case Scenarios:
Organ Trade in Iran (Legal)
Organ Trafficking in the Philippines - Organ shortages - rising demand/less donations
Worldwide only 14.7 donors per 1 million people
Mistrust in Organ Transplant System of each country- eg. Manipulation scandal at University Clinic Leipzig
Negative perception in society- religion, emotions
Doctors: only effective treatment for various medical conditions .
Human Right : receive healthcare and right to live Organ trade: the selling of organs from living donors, where both donor and recipients benefit.

Organ Trafficking: exploitation of people in order to receive their organs Why do People sell their Organs? poverty- fast way to earn money
lack of education
provide a better future for their families
forced donation
unprotected from governments - immigrants, refugees, people without passports How does Organ Trade Operate only legal in Iran, state controlled system
Declaration of Istanbul, 2008 prohibits organ trade
black market, MEDCs buy organs from citizens of LEDCs
recruitment through advertisement “Donate a Kidney, Buy a new iPad”
up to $200,000 payed to donor
donor: exploited, no medical treatment,amount of money payed is not enough
10% of the worldwide organ transplants is due to organ trafficking Should Organ Trade Be Legalized? Pro:
Prevent exploitation/limit criminal activity (ex. Prohibition 1920s US)
living organs are proven to have less side effects when transplanted - benefit to patient
higher availability of organs
self-determination

Con:
more exploitation
inequality: only rich people can afford
short term solution
market for organ tourism opened Organ Trade in Iran System : two non-profit organizations, (the CASKP and the Charity Foundation for Special Diseases) find potential donors and introducing them to the recipients
Positives:
exploitation limited
No organ shortages
compensation for donor : healthcare
Hippen, (American Journal of Transplantation) "It seems to me that if Iran had not developed a system of incentives, the situation there today would look very much like the state of affairs in countries such as Pakistan."

Negatives
competition between donors
direct buying still occurs - corruption
tourism: foreigners use resources of Iran Philippines: Victim of Organ Trafficking illegal, but state does not enforce laws
exploitation of poor
63% of organs go to foreigners
prices have increased on black market since ban of organ trade state controlled organ trade may limit exploitation - punishment/healthcare regulations
save many lives
only if fair and donor fully aware of risks
money could improve situation of donor Bibliography Real Life Situation Vera Shevdko, emigrated from Russia to Israel
Sold her kidney for 8,500 euros to Walter, a german businessman.
He payed 81,892.72 for his new organ
Ethical deal?
Full transcript