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Classical Empires

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Young Jang

on 7 February 2013

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Transcript of Classical Empires

Roman Empire Classical
Empires Roman Empire The Roman Empire The Verdict 5 / 5 The Roman empire was a highly successful classical civilization which had an expansive area with vast resources, strong economy, advanced military, and urban cities. Its grandeur and cultural ideas influenced the world greatly, and its core values can still be found in roots of most modern civilizations. It eventually fell as military service became desirable, tenant farmers sought latifundias for security as the military became more loyal to generals than state, and Germanic tribes broke down the political stability of the Empire. Government/ Economy Social/ Culture Military Core Characteristics The Roman Empire began with small city states in a power vacuum (Greek states, Egypt, Judea, Syria, Cyprus, Gaul, Romania, Spain, Sicily, Sardinia, Carthage, and Rome). After the establishment of the Republic, it transitioned into an Empire. The Roman Empire had a centralized government revolving around the Emperor, who was called Pontifex Maximus, meaning the greatest pontiff. The Emperor held all power to declare war, ratify treaties, and negotiate with foreign leaders. As the Pontifex Maximus, the Emperor held not only political power but religious power as well. He held and led many religious ceremonies. This added to the authority of the Emperors as they were deified after their death. The senate, comprised of mostly educated upper class male citizens, aided the Emperor in his rulings. Furthermore, the Emperor used legates and administrators who were placed in different regions to oversee and manage local political agendas. The Romans focused on loyalty to the state and the Emperor himself. The main economic basis for the Empire was agriculture. The Roman Empire expanded through large regions of diverse land, and thus had an environmental mosaic. The surplus of food from strong agricultural economy led to specialization and a great increase in technological and architectural advancements such as indoor plumbing, planned city structures, and roads. The Empire had a uniform currency system with pictures of the emperor on it. This helped create a great image for the emperor as well as spread it throughout the Empire. The first Roman Emperor, Augustus Caesar + Centralized Government/ Bureaucracy
+ Comprised of a definite leader and
many small governing bodies beneath
him
+Importance of the loyalty to the Emperor helped unite the citizens and view the leader as a trustworthy and admirable individual The Maya and the Teotihuacan empires were not classical empires because although they did have technological advances (city-planning in Teotihuacan and mathematics and astronomy in Maya), both empires collapsed before their legacies could be passed on and neither empire was strongly unified religiously or politically before their collapse The Verdict 2 / 5 Government/Economic Core Characteristics Culture/Social The Roman army was a highly well organized and sophisticated organization which helped influence and shape the Roman Empire. The army was a full time career it self which provided many benefits for soldiers after their duty. The soldier would receive large amounts of money, land, and the honor of having served in the Roman army. The army was divided into 3 main groups: garrison army, provincial army, and the navy. During the empire, the provincial army was the most influential in expanding territories. The provincial armies demonstrated the immense military power of Rome. Provincial armies were divided into legions which were compromised of around 4,800 to 5,280 men. On the other hand, Garrison army helped achieve "Romanization," the spreading of Roman culture and ideas in Roman provinces. While stationed in a province, the garrison army maintained control and uprising of the people, as well as help the people assimilate to the Roman culture. Teotihuacan Maya Area Han + Advanced and new military technology such as the bending iron javelin and legionary scutum (shield).
+ Detailed organization of the army
+ Helped the expansion of Roman territory
+ Military introduced new provinces in the region to Romanization and helped them assimilate into the Empire. Tech/ Infrastructure Social/Cultural Government/
Economic Military Technology/ Infrastructure The people of the Han Empire were all of the same culture meaning there wasn't any tension between different areas which created a kind of unity. The social classes were most greatly shown between peasants and military/upper class. The ability to move classes in one's lifetime was a fairly new achievement that is still hoped for by people today.
+Ethnically homogenous
+Social classes
+Trade
+Foreigners assimilated
+Confucius based
-Suppressed Buddhism causing some rebellions Very little is known about the government of Teotihuacan. There is debate over whether it was an oligarchy or a monarchy, but either way, most signs indicate a centralized and powerful government in Teotihuacan, for without one the city would not have been so well-planned and monumental architecture like the Pyramid of the Sun would not have been built because no one would have been enforcing it. The Mayan empire was a different story. Even at its peak, it was divided into city-states that were not united under a strong central government. There was constant tension between city-states and extensive sacrificing of prisoners. The imperial style of government gained loyalty using religion. The government was also bureaucratic in order to manage such a large piece of land.
+Imperialism
+used religion to gain support
+bureaucratic Militarily they created academies in which men would go and, after examination and testing, would either be accepted into the military or labeled unfit to serve. This created a bridge to move social classes. This method of merit and examination based acceptance lasted well into the 20th century.
+Academy for officers
+Could be soldier regardless of class
+Legacy of merit and examination based military acceptance. The Han Empire provided little in the way of new technology but instead improved upon infrastructure. With new roads and communication ways, people were able to expand more easily throughout the empire.
+Had peasants build Great Wall to keep out nomads
+aqueducts
+roads
The Romans worshiped the Roman gods and goddesses. Religion played a pivotal role in everyday life as well as political life. The Romans worked hard to fulfill their religious responsibilities, because they believed that the gods and goddesses had the power to create positive or negative influences in their life. Many Romans prayed and paid respect to the deities and spirits daily. Eventually, Empire grew and conquered many other civilizations and regions such as Egypt and Gaul. On account of this reason, the Romans did not force their religion upon others and were tolerant of other religions as long as the subjects were loyal to the Emperor and the state. Instead, they tried to absorb the deities and practices of other people rather than to destroy them. This way, the Romans avoided religious conflicts with the conquered regions. Emperors were thought to be deified after their death. This was a way in which the Emperor gained loyalty and praise from the people. The Romans spoke Latin, which became the language of business and trade as the Empire became stronger and grew more powerful. The social hierarchy in the Roman Empire was not subtle. It was divided into the senatorial class (political leaders), Equestrian class (wealthy business men), and lastly the commons (plebeians). Wealthy people dominated economically and led a much more sophisticated lifestyle as compared to the plebeians. The rich gained great estates, earned promotions, and high ranking political office. Living conditions for the poor differed from the rich as the plebeians were mainly in the ghettos called then Subura. Many poor citizens were compelled to become soldiers to gain opportunities for money and land. The role of women was important in the Roman Empire. Women of higher power such as wives of politicians and emperors had a great deal of influence as political advisers, while most women exerted their power in homes and local areas. Verdict 4/5 Tech/Infrastructure + Toleration of different religions allowed for diversity of religions and avoided lots of cultural tension
+Deification of the Emperor made people more loyal and trust him
+ Language of Latin spread throughout the Mediterranean and influenced much or the modern and European languages. Neither Teotihuacan nor the Mayan Empire had very strong or unified militaries as evidenced by the fact that even though the Mayans were an aggressive people and the empires were close to each other, neither empire tried to conquer the other or conquer any nearby native peoples. There was no system for recruiting or drafting peasants to fight in an organized military Both empires had a polytheistic religion that supported a belief in the cosmic cycle of creation and destruction, human sacrifice, and the afterlife. However, the religion did not invoke a strong enough sense of loyalty to the priests among the common Maya people to unify them under a single monarch. The social hierarchy was similar between both empires, with priests and high-ranking political officials at the top, farmers and artisans in the middle, and peasants on the bottom. Young Jang, Elizabeth Loyal , and Molly Lansford 2nd period Ms. Gray's WHAP Romans had a highly technologically advanced society. It was one of the first Empires to have public aqueducts, indoor plumbing, complex bridges, arches, and public monumental structures. It had many well built roads which allowed for a complex network of cities. These roads expedited transit of merchants and military, allowed for easy trade, and radiated the imperial culture. These roads were so complex and ahead of its time that they were considered the most advanced roads until the 19th century. Furthermore, the Romans exemplified superior architectural intelligence as seen in the elaborate bridges and monumental buildings like the Flavian Ampitheathre. ROMA EST OPTIMA! 5 / 5 5 5 / / / 5 5 5 5 Mesoamerican empires did not develop many labor-reducing technological advancements, but they did advance in other ways. Teotihuacan is remarkably well planned-out for a city of that time, and both empires developed terraced farming and had water-management and drainage systems. No clear evidence of a tax system. The Mayas developed an advanced writing system using phonetics and pictographs. They also took a great interest in astronomy and math and had a complex number system that included the concept of zero. Maurya Verdict Government/ Economy Social/ Culture Military Technology/ Infrastructure Core Characteristics Greek Empire Greek Empire The Mauryan Empire's expansion and protection was made possible by the largest standing army of its time. Mauryan armies were divided into four basic parts: the chariot, elephant, infantry, and archer. The empire had a military of 600,000 infantry/archers, 30,000 cavalry, and 9,000 war elephants. The Mauryan army introduced new types of warfare such as war elephants. Elephants were even equipped with armor and sword like attachments to maximize damage. The Mauryan military recruited people from all over the subcontinent and people from all caste levels, which created a diverse army. This fierce army succeeded in creating a large empire though its military victories. Even after he renounced offensive warfare and expansion, Ashoka continued to maintain the large army, to protect the Empire and create stability and peace in the West and South Asia. The Greek Empire Core Characteristics Government/Economy Military Culture/Social Tech/Infrastructure / 5 Maurya Empire 322 to 185 BCE The Mauryan empire was impressive and similar to the Persian, Chinese and the Roman Empires , but not as long lasting. The population of the empire was approximately 50-60 million, which made the Mauryan Empire one of the most populous empires of the time. It had a centralized Monarch government with bureaucratic features. The Empire was divided into four different provinces in which a kumara (royal prince) administered each region, assisted by a council of ministers. The emperor oversaw the entire Empire and is advised by a Council called the Mantriparishad. When Chandragupta Maurya’s son, Ashoka the great, took over, he promoted reforms for a centralized bureaucracy. The Empire was organized of ministries and many spies who informed the rulers with local information. All these political apparatuses were financed by taxes on trade, animals, and land. The state also flourished due to a successful agricultural economic base. Although the region had relative geographical mosaic and successful agriculture, unpredictable monsoon rains brought drought or catastrophic floods. After Ashoka's convert to Buddhism, he urged humane behavior and insisted moral welfare in governing the people Other economical activities included spinning, weaving, mining, shipbuilding, and armaments. Qin Core Characteristics Government/Economy Military Social/Culture Tech/Infrastructure Persian Empire The Persian Empire was a massive force. With strong military force, founder Cyrus the Great was able to control a vast amount of land. Cyrus established a means of communication across his empire in order for it to be run by one man successfully. The empire, while for the most part an ideal classical empire, falls short due to the fact that there is not a major legacy left behind. The Han Empire which lasted from 206 BC- AD 220 was a classical empire due to its culturally assimilated population, unity over vast distances, and military advancements that were used into the 20th century 4/5 5/5 5/5 4/5 Social/Cultural Government/Economical Military Tech/Infrastructure The Persians created their communication system by setting up official buildings about every 15 miles so horsemen could run their horse form one building to another, pass it off and another man do the same to where the message never stopped advancing. This allowed the message to cross the entire empire in about a week.
+Effective, long distance, quick message system 4/5 The Persian military was massive. With so many people loyal to the king, the Persians would easily expand, conquering any people they came across.
+Extremely strong military
+Loyal to king 5/5 A monarchy with each province having a governor. Along with the governor, to ensure there was no regionalism, the king had many workers who acted as the “eyes and ears” of the king.
+Bureaucratic
+Effective over large area
+Loyal subjects 4/5 Social classes still existed in that slaves were used to construct government buildings and women would work in textiles with the men out fighting. Culturally Persia was not as unified as other empires. The government tolerated other religions, not forcing anyone to join Zoroastrianism, the main religion of the Persians.
+Tolerant of other religions=less rebellion
-Did not enforce ethnic or religious unity Verdict 4/5 4/5 Andean Empire Chavin and Moche The Andean Empire is comprised of both the Chavin and the Moche Empires. Both had a common culture which unified its people. The governments for the Andean civilization were both religiously based, inspiring more loyalty. These Empires didn’t expand far, most likely due to the geographical surrounding of sea, mountains and desert. However, their terrace farming which has been used into the 21st century and their self sufficiency attributes to their mediocre rating. Social/Cultural Government/Economical Military Tech/Infrastructure These two civilizations were strongly unified due to their religion and government being one and the same. The main religion being based on animals found near their homeland.
+Culturally and socially united
+Religious based=more loyal The Chavin were unified in a religious cult and the Moche were governed by a warrior-priest. Both governments inspired unity and loyalty to both the leader and the religion.
+Combined religion and government Due to the geographical location of these Andean civilizations, there wasn’t much need for a large military. Though there are suggestions that there were sometimes fights, there was no large scale organized military.
+Advantageous location caused little or no military to be organized. The main technological advancement made in the Andean area would be the use of terrace farming. The steep, hilly mountain basin was not ideal for farming due to the water running off before plants could use it. By creating almost a stair case into the mountain, the Andean civilizations were able to farm more successfully in the already fertile land.
+Legacy of terrace farming in that part of the world
+Developed: terrace farming, canals, ventilation, shafts, drainage, metal work, pottery and weaving. 4/5 1/5 2/5 2/5 Verdict 2/5 The geography of Greece made political unification difficult, so instead it was divided up into individually governed city-states. Greece is known as the birthplace of democracy because these city-states were the first to pioneer a strong concept of citizenship. Free men in city-states had more ways to participate in their local governments than anywhere else in the world - they could vote and speak on public affairs. At first, only the elite free men had political rights, but soon small-scale farmers were earning enough money to join their city-states' militia and earn more rights through service to their country. Thus more of the common population of Greece earned a say in their local governments. The economy of Greece was based more on fishing than on agriculture as the mountainous geography made heavy farming difficult. When Alexander the Great expanded the Greek empire, the city-states lost some of their independence in favor of the more centralized bureaucracy needed to control such a large empire, but the loyalty to Greece did not die out. Each city-state had its own infantry made up of men from many different social classes. Called hoplites, these foot soldiers joined to gain glory and, if they were on the poorer side, money so they could move up in the hierarchy. Soldiers had to wear almost 15 pounds of bronze armor and were equipped with the latest in iron weaponry. Alexander's conquest required a huge military, and many of the men who volunteered for service did it out of loyalty and pride towards Greece. This sense of honor certainly helped to unify the Greek Empire after it had expanded. Classical Greece was culturally unique in many ways. Although the city-states were usually antagonistic towards each other, they were unified by the Hellenistic religion (commonly known today as greek mythology), and every four years the city-states would come together and celebrate the Olympic Games. Classical Greece is also known for its defining architecture (ionic, doric, and corinthian pillars, triangular roofs), its philosophers like Plato and Socrates, and the origins of theater and playwrights such as Euripides and Sophocles. After Alexander the Great's conquest, the Hellenistic religion, greek architecture, the greek language and even greek fashion disseminated all the way to the Indus River Valley. Men all through the empire could become greek citizens by learning the language and taking a greek name. Some Indian architecture and art took on greek influences, like a depiction of Buddha not only in human form, but in one resembling the god Apollo. Corinthian pillars can be found on many buildings in India constructed during Alexander's rule. Alexander also encouraged his soldiers to marry the women of the people they conquered as to encourage loyalty towards Greece among the conquered. Actions like this further integrated greek culture into Persia and Egypt. Greece was up-to-date on the technology for the time, with cities like Athens sporting a water collection and distribution system using aqueducts. Greek architecture was innovative because it focused on symmetry and balance. Each side had to have the same number of pillars and they all had to spaced apart equally. Concepts like this spread with Alexander's conquest. Greeks were very focused on learning and the growth of the mind; thus subjects like astronomy and math and literature experienced a lot of growth in Greece. Trade occurred all throughout the Hellenistic Empire through use of the Mediterranean sea. The Verdict 5 / 5 The Greek Empire was a classical empire because the things it was known for are still valued today. The Olympics are still celebrated every four years, students study the teachings of Socrates and the works of Homer, Greek columns can be found in modern architecture, and the development of democracy there has impacted the government of the United States almost 2400 years later. Alexander the Great's impact on the areas he conquered can be seen most definitively in the spread of Greek architecture, art, and religion in Egypt and Persia. 4/5 5/5 5/5 4/5 Corinthian pillars found in Indian architecture Became a centralized bureaucracy under Qin Shi Huang, who declared himself "First Emporer" ("Shihuangdi"). Legalism was strictly adopted, a necessary move as China needed order after years of political turmoil, but this system made him unpopular as the taxes and punishments were harsh. The empire was divided into 36 commanderies which all had a civil governor, military commander and an imperial inspector who had to report to the Emperor. After Huang died, his son took over the throne, but was soon overthrown and the Han dynasty was established. Under Qin Shi Huang, the Chinese military was the strongest it had ever been. He established a professional army with career soldiers instead of peasants and reliable generals instead of aristocratic nobles. His army used the latest in iron weaponry, including swords and crossbows. The Qin army was especially known for its calvary, which was the strongest at the time. Huang's Terra Cotta Army is indicative of how powerful an army he was used to. As Emperor, Huang stripped nobles of all their power in order to make all people loyal to the state, but unfortunately this made him rather unpopular with the nobles. He demanded book burnings in order to keep people from having other allegiances, and he killed scholars who disagreed with his ideals or methods. Standardization of currency, weights, cart axle lengths, measurements, and written Chinese occurred under Huang's rule. These regulations, with some variations, remained for many centuries. Through unpaid labor, the peasants of the Qin dynasty built the Great Wall to keep nomadic tribes out and the building of his own tomb. The irrigation systems improved under his command as well. The Qin Dynasty is a classical empire because many of the reforms that took place were foundations for the Dynasties to come. It is only a 3 on the scale because there was no distinctive art or architecture resulting from this period, there was no unifying religion, the dynasty had no friendly external contacts and no access to trade, and the dynasty was eventually overthrown by the people. The Verdict 3/5 3/5 5/5 2/5 5/5 Core Characteristics Gupta Gupta Originally, the main religion of the Mauryan Empire was Hinduism. However, there was a transition from Hinduism to Buddhism when Ashoka embraced Buddhism after the conquest of Kalinga and witnessed tragic death and loss caused by the war. He renounced further expansion and violence and sent out many Buddhist missionaries to travel around Asia. This caused a shift into a Buddhist culture for the Empire of Mauryan. He eased many over- rigorous administrative practices, including those regarding taxation and crop collection, helped increase productivity and economic activity across the Empire. Ashoka's convert to Buddhism urged human behavior and insisted moral welfare, creating a stability and ethical discipline throughout the empire. This greatly influenced the administrative and economical aspects of the Empire. Ashoka vigorously propagated Buddhism throughout India while honoring Hinduism and other religions. He tolerated the other religions of the region and this led to a sense of loyalty and unification of the Indian Subcontinent. The caste system was discouraged as more and more as the Mauryans accepted the ideas of Jainism and Buddhism. Ashoka arranged missionaries to West Eurasia and East Asia for the sake of spreading Buddhism. Merchants also naturally dispersed this religion. + Military introduces new technology of using
elephants.
+Strong, fierce army without regard to caste system in recruitment helped unite people together as an army with sense of spirit and allegiance .
+ Military is main reason for Empire's expansion. 4 Key Gupta Empire 320 to 550 CE Government/ Economy Technology/Infrastructure Social/ Culture Verdict Military Ashoka the Great - Unpredictable monsoons created agricultural instability + Centralized Monarchical Bureaucracy +Enormous population of the empire + Regulated taxes funded political apparatuses 4/5 +Acceptance of different religions + Ashoka used Buddhism not only to better the ethical code and laws of the Empire, but gained loyalty and secure validation of authority. + Cultural dispersal through missionaries and merchant/trade routes. Ashoka built many Buddhist temples like these to promote the religion. Although the Technology of the Mauryan Empire was innovative and advanced for its , it did not leave as great an impact on the lasting civilizations like Roman or Greek Empires. The Mauryans improved the textiles technology and had advanced iron making skills which out performed much of European civilizations. It also boasted an extensive network of roads dotted with wells and rest stops for travelers and merchants. This helped facilitate expedite communication and trade. Military + Advanced iron making technology that out performed the European civilizations. +Extensive network of roads with wells and rest stops on the way - Although technology was innovative, it did not leave as great a mark on history like Roman or Greek Empires. 3/5 4/5 4/5 The Mauryan Empire was a successful and influential Empire in the Subcontinent of India. Its major achievements are a huge and powerful military, centralized government, open-mindedness of different cultures and ideas, and dispersal of Buddhism. It fit under many categories of a Classical Civilization such as environmental potential, state level government, and adequate military resources. However, its influences did not radiate as far to the later generations. 2/5 2/5 1/5 3/5 The Gupta Empire was a monarchical government which was rather uncentralized compared to Roman and Greek governments due to regionalism. It had a bureaucratic system in which power under the emperor was divided into parts throughout the Empire. However, much like the lack of centralization the Gupta Empire did not create an extensive bureaucracy and allowed local rulers defeated to maintain regional control as long as they deferred to the Gupta dominance. Stationed personal representative at each ruler's court to ensure loyalty. No single language was imposed, and this created a lack of unification across the subcontinent. On the other hand, the government promoted uniform law code, sponsored several general services such as road building, and established a strong education and cultural base. The political institution was overall not very elaborate and little political ideas from the Gupta carried on. The caste system promoted tolerance and provided a way for India's various races, conquerors, and conquered to live together without conflict. Regulation created by the Caste system made political administration less necessary as people followed the caste rules. At the same time, mutual antagonisms among the states were created over the matter of Hinduism vs. Buddhism and women losing rights. Much of cultural practices served a purpose in the economy. For example, arranged marriages were to ensure solid economic relationships. Guptas offered cotton, dyes, drugs, gold, and ivory and brought back pottery, metals, slaves, and gold from Middle East and Rome. The empire had a relatively geographical mosaic consisting of Indus and Ganges Rivers, Thar Desert, Deccan Plateau, Himalayas. Agricultural success led to specializations and great advances in intellectual and technological innovations. In terms of trade, the Gupta dominated the waters of Southern Asia and was a pivotal trade partner in other civilizations of the world. +High agricultural potential in the area - Decentralized government due to regionalism + Mutual antagonisms among states: Hinduism vs. Buddhism; women losing rights +uniform law code and established strong education +relatively geographical mosaic 4/5 The main religion of the Gupta Empire was Hinduism. The government attempted to transition back from the Buddhist religious base implemented in the Mauryan Empire. Hinduism encouraged political and economical goals s well as worldly pleasures. This justified much of the emperor's actions and helped the Guptans strive for a more successful Empire. Hindu ethics explained and encouraged honorable actions. It legitimized the government and the caste system, providing a frame work in which the duties of the Empire were carried out. Hinduism greatly affected the way in which people viewed their world. Hindus were open to religious diversity and coexisted with different religions in the Empire. The influence of Hinduism upon the Guptan Empire carried on in the legacy to Indian cultures in the later periods. Core Characteristics Teotihuacan and Maya Mesoamerica +Main religion is Hinduism +Hinduism encouraged political a economic goals +Religion helped justify emperor's actions and legitimized the caste system. +Hindus were open to religious diversity +Influence of Hinduism upon the Empire is carried on in the legacy to Indian cultures in later periods 5/5 The period of time in which the Guptan Empire was flourishing was a period of increasing innovation, knowledge, and arts. The Guptan Empire had one of the world's first university center, located in the town of Nalanda. This center attracted many scholars from parts of Asia. The curriculum in this center was comprised of religion, philosophy, medicine, architecture, and agriculture. They had a great understanding of astronomy. The Guptans calculated the solar year, improved mathematical measurements, understood the rotation of Earth, predicted and explained eclipses, and identified 7 planets. The medical field was also very advanced although religious prohibitions did create minor restrictions such as a ban on dissection. The Guptans stressed the importance of cleanliness and hygiene, sterilization of wounds, and disease prevention. Art in Gupta Empire was focused on the appreciation of nature and religious Hindu values. Poetry and drama were the main works of literature in the Guptan Empire. Narrative histories, religious and meditative writing, and lyric poetry were designed to , educate and entertain the people. There were formal essays on subjects such as grammar, medicine, math, and astronomy. The best-known essay of the period is the Kamasutra, which provides rules about the art of love and marriage based on Hindu laws. These technological/ educational advancements allowed for a more complex and intricate lifestyle and were used in the future societies. + Educational establishments promoted learning and understanding of the world around the Empire + Art were represented in various forms and dealt with educating or entertaining the people + Such technological and educational change allowed for a complex lifestyle +These important data were helpful and influenced the future societies 5/5 The military force of the Guptan Empire was strong, vigilant, and pivotal in the expansion of the Empire. The founder of the Empire was Samudragupta, who was a great warrior seeking to unite all of India under his rule by waging wars across the Indian subcontinent. The force of the Guptan military overwhelmed the other regions and Guptan Empire was able to gain much of their land quickly. The military success caused the Guptan territories to expand greatly
under Samudragupta's reign. Because of this accomplishment, he has often been compared to great conquerors such as Alexander the Great and Napoleon. Local squads of the army consisted of one elephant, one chariot, three armed cavalrymen, and five foot soldiers. These squads protected Gupta villages from raids and revolts. In times of war, the squads joined together to form a powerful and strong army. However, military was unable to hold out against constant attacks of the White Huns when they invaded and ran over the Empire. During this time they lost many lives and the economy was hurt by constant attacks. This led to a more decentralized government system without the willingness to help each other, ultimately leading to the downfall of Gupta Empire. + Allowed for the expansion of the Empire + Military was strong and well structured even down to the local level of protection. - Unable to protect the Empire from the White Huns and eventually caused downfall 3/5 4/5 In 185 B.C.E., the Mauryan empire collapsed after the last of the Mauryan kings was assassinated. Soon, small kingdoms arose throughout India. For almost 500 years, these various states fought in wars against each other. When Chandragupta I ascended the throne in 320 C.E. a new empire rose in the North called the Gupta Empire. He revived many principles of Mauryan government and helped found the basis of an Empire for his son, Samudragupta, to develop an extensive empire. The Guptans were mainly defined by creativity, arts, fabulous literature, and intellectual scholars which influenced further generations of societies. Core Characteristics Persian Empire (558 BCE - 331 BCE) Greek Empire (323 BCE - 30 CE) Roman Empire (27 BCE - 476 CE) Qin (221 BCE - 206 BCE) Han (206 BCE - 220 CE) Mesoamerica (400 BCE - 900 CE) Andean (900 BCE - 600 CE) Carrollton, TX Welcome Home! We hope you enjoyed the wondrous journey through the Classical Empires! Now that you have a better understanding about these Civilizations and their influences, you might be able to recognize many things we have incorporated to our society. We hope that this experience was a remarkably eye opening as well as entertaining. Thank you for taking the time to watch this presentation! WORLD HISTORY AP Empire- large political systems with coercive power.
These have more aggresive states which are conquered and
included under a single political system. legacy- Something transmitted or passed down from a predecessor or the past which influences the present.
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