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Medical Waste Management and Disposal
Transcript of Medical Waste Management and Disposal
SSG BAZALAKI, A MEDICAL WASTE MANAGEMENT
AND DISPOSAL What is Medical Waste? Types of medical waste References Medical Waste management and disposal is the collection, transport, processing or disposal, managing and monitoring of waste materials generated from healthcare premises (MWM, 2013). Medical waste has to be handled and disposed properly to eliminate the possibility of injury or infection. Efforts of government agencies and NGO's in reducing
impact of medical waste on envrionment and population Inadequate incineration or the incineration of unsuitable materials results in the release of pollutants into the air and of ash residue. Incinerated materials containing chlorine generate dioxins and furans (human carcinogens) Long-term, low-level exposure to dioxins and furans leads to the impairment of the immune system, development of the nervous system, endocrine system and reproductive functions. Short-term, high-level exposure result in skin lesions and altered liver function. Where is it found and why? A medic tosses hospital
waste into a burnpit. History of medical waste disposal and management Medical waste management and disposal differ from developing to developed countries. Medical waste is infectious and hazardous; the risks are minimized with care. Hence, there is need for specific treatment and management prior to its final disposal There are four different categories: infectious, hazardous, radioactive, and general.
Infectious waste can cause infections to humans. It includes human or animal tissue (blood or other body parts), blood soaked bandages, discarded surgical gloves, cultures, stocks, or swabs to inoculate cultures. Pathological waste (recognizable body parts and contaminated animal carcasses) are classified as infectious waste (BMW, 2013 & WHO, 2013).
Hazardous wastes affect humans in non-infectious ways. This includes sharps, (objects that can puncture or lacerate the skin e.g. needles), syringes, discarded surgical instruments (scalpels and lancets), culture dishes and other glassware, chemicals. Some hazardous wastes are infectious waste, depending on its usage and exposure to human or animal tissue prior to discard e.g. old drugs, chemotherapy agents.
Radioactive waste results from nuclear medicine treatments, cancer therapies and medical equipment that use radioactive isotopes. Pathological waste contaminated with radioactive material is treated as radioactive waste rather than infectious waste.
General waste is synonymous to general household or office waste e.g. paper, plastics, liquids and other materials that do not fit into the previous three categories (BMW, 2013). Management of waste starts from the point it is generated, therefore entailing Collecting, Storing, Transfering, Transporting, Treatment ( Autoclaves, Incineration, Mechanical/Chemical Disinfection, Microwave and Irradiation) and Disposal of the material. Basura Medical Waste Resources BMW, 2013
Retrievd from http://www.wastemed.com/
Texas commission on environmental quality Managing and Disposing of Medical Waste, 2012 Managing and Disposal of Medical Waste Retrieved from http://www.tceq.texas.gov/permitting/waste_permits/msw_permits/mw_disposal.html
WHO, 2013 Medical waste
Retrieved from http://www.who.int/topics/medical_waste/en/
Retrieved from http://www.healthcarewaste.org/
Hassan M., Shafiul A., K Anisur R., Biswas K., 2008 Pattern of medical waste management: existing scenario in Dhaka City, Bangladesh Retrieved from http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/8/36
Initial Clinical Waste Regulations (ICWR), Waste Legislations and Laws, 2013
Retrieved from http://www.initial.co.uk/medical-services/regulations/index.html
US EPA Medical Waste Frequent Questions, 2013
Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/osw/nonhaz/industrial/medical/mwfaqs.htm
US FDA Medical Devices, 2013
Retrieved from http://www.fda.gov/MedicalDevices/ProductsandMedicalProcedures/HomeHealthandConsumer/ConsumerProducts/Sharps/ucm263236.htm
California department of public health Medical Waste Management Program, 2013
Retrieved from http://www.cdph.ca.gov/certlic/medicalwaste/Pages/default.aspx
Georgescu C., 2011Medical waste becoming an increasing problem, UN rights expert says
Retrieved from http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=39543&Cr=toxic&Cr1 The Medical Waste Tracking Act of 1988 defines medical waste as "any solid waste that is generated in the diagnosis, treatment, or immunization of human beings or animals, in research pertaining thereto, or in the production or testing of biologicals”. What is medical waste management? Medical waste is found in healthcare premises. Medical centers, clinics, laboratories, hospitals, veterinary clinics, research centers, mortuaries, autopsy centers, animal research and testing laboratories, blood banks and collection services, nursing homes for the elderly and other health-care establishments (WHO, 2013). They can be harmless but approximately 15% poses a potential infection hazard (US EPA, 2013). Waste generated by health care activities includes used needles and syringes, soiled dressings, body parts, diagnostic samples, blood, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, medical devices, sharps, non sharps, radioactive materials e.t.c. Medical waste management Medical waste containers are generally red, contain the word “biohazard” and are imprinted with the universal three-sided biohazard symbol, which was developed by Dow Chemical in the 1960 (BMW,2013). This standardization identifies these containers as medical waste -Governments are addressing the specific health effects due to incineration.
-The problem of poor medical waste management and disposal is rising especially in developing countries, the amount of medical waste being generated is rising rapidly as health-care services expand while, the technological and financial tools to ensure the waste is managed responsibly may not exist.
-UN proposes the development of an international legal regime to manage and dispose medical waste while replacing incineration as a disposal method with more environmentally-friendly methods as a recommendation to reduce the hazards of medical waste disposal (Georgescu C., 2011). Such as demonstrated by........WHO's global and comprehensive guidance document, “Safe management of wastes from health-care activities”,which addresses regulatory framework, planning issues, waste minimization and recycling, handling, storage and transportation, treatment and disposal options, and training. A cow joins the waste pile Constituents of medical waste This limb will have to go somewhere Proper management and disposal of medical waste is very vital and it has been proven not only by the worldwide conflicts but also the development of countries and their medical infrastructures; that there is a need for improvement and education on how we handle this. Thank you for viewing our Prezi and we hope you enjoyed it. Exposure to pollutants Nervous system failure Side effects of exposure to carcinogen The World Health Organization classifies medical waste into:SharpsInfectiousPathologicalRadioactivePharmaceuticalsOthers (often sanitary waste produced at hospitals)Sharp wastes make up most of the volume of medical wastes followed by blood and body fluids.