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Unit X: Between the Wars

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Andrew Arnold

on 11 March 2015

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Transcript of Unit X: Between the Wars

people find these leaders exciting!
Unit X:
Between the Wars

Section 1: Revolution in Russia
Section 2: Europe after WWII
Section 3: Napoleon and the Empire
Section 4: Collapse of the Empire
Setting the Stage:
The Russian Revolution was like a firecracker with a very long fuse. The explosion came in 1917, but it had been burning for a long time. The cruel, often oppressive rule of most 19th-century czars caused unrest for years.
History of Oppression:
Alexander III led a strict autocracy
Alexander's oppressive policies:
Setting the Stage:
With new countries and an economic crisis brewing, many nations turn to strong leaders who could possibly save them from hunger, war, and revolution.
Setting the Stage:
Napoleon started as a relatively obscure officer in the French army to the emperor of France (1795-1799)
NB Seizes Power:
Napoleon Bonaparte:
joined the revolutionary army during the Revolution
sent to military school age 9
NB gets famous:
1795: protects National Convention
considered a savior of France
scares royalist army away
Born in 1769 in Corsica:
Directory gives him an army:
- defeats the Austrians in Italy
- leads army into Egypt
- becomes a great hero
Coup d'Etat:
Directory losing control
considered a savior of France
Napoleon seizes power
new new new new NEW group formed:
- called the French Consulate
- run by 3 consuls
- Napoleon is one of them
- Austria, Britain, and Russia sign peace agreement
NB Rules France:
The Plebiscite: 1800
people wanted a strong leader
voted on new constitution
Restoring Order:
established a national banking system
Reformed tax collection/metric system
Vote of the people.
Fired corrupt officials
NB Crowned Emperor: 1804
Decided to name himself "emperor"
Pope waited with a crown at Notre Dame
French voters support him
TOOK the crown from the Pope
- crowned himself
- symbolizing he is more powerful than the church
gave NB all power
NB called "First Consul"
France a mess because of Revolution
created Lycees:
gov. run schools. Open to any male
Signed the Concordat:
agreement between NB and Pope Pius VII
gave church freedom
Church CANNOT interfere with gov.
Napoleonic Code:
uniform set of laws
limited free speech/press
restored slavery in French colonies
NB Creates an Empire:
Loss of American Territories:
French lost due to disease
revolt due to slavery
Conquering Europe:
NB wins a series of battles
British/Russia/Austria/Sweden join forces
Most famous was Austerlitz, 1805
NB loses
Horatio Nelson (British) split the French fleet
battle of the Southwest of Spain
NB wants it ALL!
Sells Louisiana for 15 million (1803)
Napoleon cuts losses in America
empowers America against British
gets money to conquer Europe
NB unpredictable
Soldiers! I am pleased with you. On the day of Austerlitz, you justified everything that I was expecting of you. In less than four hours, an army of 100,000 men, commanded by the emperors of Russia and Austria, was cut up and dispersed. 120 pieces of artillery, 20 generals, and more than 30,000 men taken prisoner- such are the results of this day which will forever be famous. And it will be enough for you to say, "I was at Austerlitz," to hear the reply: "There is a brave man!"
Speech! Speech! Speech!
Only power left, the British Navy
British fleet dominates for 100 years
Napoleon gives up invading Britain
The French Empire:
All others under puppet governments/alliances
by 1812: most of Europe under NB's control
Empire is huge, but unstable
only lasts about 5 years (1807-1812)
Setting the Stage:
NB's wife, Josephine, has not given him an heir to the throne. He divorces her and marries Marie Louise, grandniece of Marie Antoinette. Gave birth to Napoleon II.
3 Costly Mistakes:
1. Continental System:
intended to destroy Britain's economy
no communication with Britain!
Established a "blockade" of all European ports
Effects of the Blockade:
British smuggle goods anyway
allies ignore blockade
waste of money/unpopular
2. Peninsular War:
Spain objects
NB sends army through Spain
Portugal refuses to agree with blockade
Spanish use guerilla warfare (hit and run)
NB loses 300,000 soldiers
became a symbol of rebellion against the French
NB removes Spanish king and puts his brother Joseph in control
3. Invasion of Russia: 1812
Russia uses "scorched-earth policy"
NB sends 420,000 soldiers to Russia
Russia refuses to stop trading with Britain
NB looses most of his army
cold/snow makes it worse
French army nearly devastated - 10,000 left
Russia retreats
burns grain fields/kills livestock
NB's Downfall:
NB Suffers Defeat:
continually defeated
not trained well
NB creates another army (Oct. 1813)
pushed back to Paris
April 1814 - Napoleon Surrenders
banished to Elba -> island off Italy
The 100 Days:
Napoleon escapes Elba
Louis XVIII assumes throne
Britain responds by sending an army to Belgium
marched to Paris, gaining soldiers
Prussian army arrives
NB starts winning
British vs. NB at Waterloo,Belgium 1815
after 2 days, NB is defeated
NB banished to St. Helena
dies 6 years later (1821)
forcing Russian culture on all ethnic groups
used censorship and secret police to keep order
organized riots against Jews in Russia
many Jews leave Russia
becomes czar
attempts to build industry
Nicholas II
causes low wages, poor working conditions, child labor
economic unrest starts to grow
Seeds of Revolution:
200,000 workers march on the Palace
Workers have demands:
better working conditions
known as
Bloody Sunday
elected representatives
individual rights
Soldiers fire into the crowd
500-1000 protesters are killed
Nicholas II fears a civil war
creates the
an elected legislature
WWI was the final straw
no "real" power to change things
millions dead and no food
real revolution was coming
The March Revolution:
March, 1917:
strikes and riots break out. Soldiers join in!
Nicholas abdicates his throne
he and his family put under guard
1918: Royal family is executed
pro-czar forces were approaching
leaders of the Duma set up a temporary government
decide to continue WWI
Fast Facts:
Nicholas the II was known as "Nicholas the Bloody" because of 3 events:
Khodynka Tragedy:
stampede kills 1300 people on coronation day
organized riots against Jews
Bloody Sunday:
soldiers fire into a crowd of protesters
thought that keeping them alive would create further unrest
conditions in Russia worsen
Communists take power:
April, 1917:
German military returns revolutionaries to Russia
leader of the Communist Party
name of the Russian Communist Party
Nov. 1917: Bolshevik soldiers seize control of the gov.
Lenin gives property to the people:
"peace, land, and bread"
land to peasants
Vladimir Lenin:
ideas appealed to many
factories to the workers
Bolsheviks sign the
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
people relieved that the war was over BUT.....
people were angry over the significant loss of land
Russian Civil War:
Communists vs. the Bourgeoisie
Communist party
organized by
Economy is a mess
Lenin announces an economic plan called
gov. keeps control of big industries
Red Army:
Leon Trotsky
feared the Communist takeover
small businesses and peasants allowed to make profits
economy slowly recovers
officers, nobles, and middle class
White Army:
led by
Alexander Kerensky
led by Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel and Alexander Vasilyevich Kolchak
New Economic Policy
U.S.S.R. Created:
Russia becomes the Union of Soviet Republics
Country gets split into self-governing
in reality, communist party has all the power
and struggle for power after Lenin's death
Stalin uses Trotsky's criticism of the gov. against him
Trotsky gets banished to Serbia
Lenin dies after several strokes
power struggle ensues
Leon Trotsky
Joseph Stalin
by 1927, Stalin is dictator of U.S.S.R.
Stalin Leads Russia:
to build "the perfect communist state"
Stalin builds a gov.
controls every aspect of the peoples' lives
(1934-1939) all "enemies of the state" should be eliminated
teachers, religious enemies, capitalists, etc.
sets up a
The Great Purge:
estimated that 8-13 million killed
command economy
gov. makes all economic decisions
especially prices and quantities
used the secret police to ensure power and force obedience
Era of Uncertainty:
New democracies rise in Europe
Absolute rulers are gone:
some nations have 10+ political parties
made governing difficult
led to
coalition governments
many parties attempting to work together
this weakness in gov. led people to follow totalitarian leaders
Weimar Republic:
Germany's new government
Germany had a lack of democratic past
too many political parties
weakened the gov.
millions blamed Weimar gov. for
defeat in WWI
Treaty of Versailles
poor economy
Germany suffered from terrible
drastic rise in prices
money becomes worthless
German people drift to strong leaders
The Great Depression:
1920's America: economy is booming!
1920s: surging U.S. economy supported the rest of the world
U.S. invested in foreign countries
foreign countries brought goods
1929: U.S. economy collapses. 3 causes:
uneven distribution of wealth
overproduction of goods
demand for goods drop
1929: Stock market crashes
billions of $ gone!
businesses and banks fail
failing U.S. economy weakened economies all over the world
Rise of Fascism:
People turn to dictators to deal with the economic crisis
type of totalitarian gov. that emphasizes:
fascists promise to
Italians are upset over inflation and unemployment
many feared a communist revolution like Russia
people turn to fascism
used in Rome to symbolize unity and strength and also used in capital punishment local rulers
loyalty to the state
total obedience to the leader
fix the economy
restore pride
punish those responsible for the mess
promised strong economy, army, and leadership
popularity increased as economic conditions worsened
Benito Mussolini:
Mussolini's attack socialists and communists in the streets
he wins support of the middle class, aristocrats, and industry leaders
1922: 30,000 fascists march on Rome
convince King Victor Emmanuel II to put Mussolini in charge
Black Shirts
abolished democracy, outlawed political parties, and used the secret police to keep control
Rise of Hitler:
1920: Hitler joins the Nazi party
short for the National Socialist German Workers Party. Goals:
Great speaking ability made him the
fight communism
overturn the Treaty of Versailles
supporters were middle class workers
means "my struggle"
attempt failed; Hitler jailed for 9 months
Bad economy turns people to Hitler
Nazis are the largest party in 1932
1923: Nazis try to seize power
bans all other political parties
restore pride in Germany
Mein Kampf
Germans are the master race called the Aryans
"living room" expanded borders for Germans to live
1933: fear of Communism convinces the German president to name Hitler "Chancellor"
uses the or secret police to force obedience
Hitler bans labor unions and puts major businesses under gov. control
built roads, factories, weapons
created 5 million new jobs
greatly increased the size of the military
used the press, radio, artwork, and literature as propaganda tools
Full transcript