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Unit X: Between the Wars

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Andrew Arnold

on 3 February 2017

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Transcript of Unit X: Between the Wars

people find these leaders exciting!
Unit X:
Between the Wars

Section 1: Revolution in Russia
Section 2: Europe after WWII
Setting the Stage:
The Russian Revolution was like a firecracker with a very long fuse. The explosion came in 1917, but it had been burning for a long time. The cruel, often oppressive rule of most 19th-century czars caused unrest for years.
History of Oppression:
Alexander III led a strict autocracy
Alexander's oppressive policies:
Setting the Stage:
With new countries and an economic crisis brewing, many nations turn to strong leaders who could possibly save them from hunger, war, and revolution.
forcing Russian culture on all ethnic groups
used censorship and secret police to keep order
organized riots against Jews in Russia
many Jews leave Russia
becomes czar
attempts to build industry
Nicholas II
causes low wages, poor working conditions, child labor
economic unrest starts to grow
Seeds of Revolution:
200,000 workers march on the Palace
Workers have demands:
better working conditions
known as
Bloody Sunday
elected representatives
individual rights
Soldiers fire into the crowd
500-1000 protesters are killed
Nicholas II fears a civil war
creates the
an elected legislature
WWI was the final straw
no "real" power to change things
millions dead and no food
real revolution was coming
The March Revolution:
March, 1917:
strikes and riots break out. Soldiers join in!
Nicholas abdicates his throne
he and his family put under guard
1918: Royal family is executed
pro-czar forces were approaching
leaders of the Duma set up a temporary government
decide to continue WWI
Fast Facts:
Nicholas the II was known as "Nicholas the Bloody" because of 3 events:
Khodynka Tragedy:
stampede kills 1300 people on coronation day
organized riots against Jews
Bloody Sunday:
soldiers fire into a crowd of protesters
thought that keeping them alive would create further unrest
conditions in Russia worsen
Communists take power:
April, 1917:
German military returns revolutionaries to Russia
leader of the Communist Party
name of the Russian Communist Party
Nov. 1917: Bolshevik soldiers seize control of the gov.
Lenin gives property to the people:
"peace, land, and bread"
land to peasants
Vladimir Lenin:
ideas appealed to many
factories to the workers
Bolsheviks sign the
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
people relieved that the war was over BUT.....
people were angry over the significant loss of land
Russian Civil War:
Communists vs. the Bourgeoisie
Communist party
organized by
Economy is a mess
Lenin announces an economic plan called
gov. keeps control of big industries
Red Army:
Leon Trotsky
feared the Communist takeover
small businesses and peasants allowed to make profits
economy slowly recovers
officers, nobles, and middle class
White Army:
led by
Alexander Kerensky
led by Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel and Alexander Vasilyevich Kolchak
New Economic Policy
U.S.S.R. Created:
Russia becomes the Union of Soviet Republics
Country gets split into self-governing
in reality, communist party has all the power
and struggle for power after Lenin's death
Stalin uses Trotsky's criticism of the gov. against him
Trotsky gets banished to Serbia
Lenin dies after several strokes
power struggle ensues
Leon Trotsky
Joseph Stalin
by 1927, Stalin is dictator of U.S.S.R.
Stalin Leads Russia:
to build "the perfect communist state"
Stalin builds a gov.
controls every aspect of the peoples' lives
(1934-1939) all "enemies of the state" should be eliminated
teachers, religious enemies, capitalists, etc.
sets up a
The Great Purge:
estimated that 8-13 million killed
command economy
gov. makes all economic decisions
especially prices and quantities
used the secret police to ensure power and force obedience
Era of Uncertainty:
New democracies rise in Europe
Absolute rulers are gone:
some nations have 10+ political parties
made governing difficult
led to
coalition governments
many parties attempting to work together
this weakness in gov. led people to follow totalitarian leaders
Weimar Republic:
Germany's new government
Germany had a lack of democratic past
too many political parties
weakened the gov.
millions blamed Weimar gov. for
defeat in WWI
Treaty of Versailles
poor economy
Germany suffered from terrible
drastic rise in prices
money becomes worthless
German people drift to strong leaders
The Great Depression:
1920's America: economy is booming!
1920s: surging U.S. economy supported the rest of the world
U.S. invested in foreign countries
foreign countries brought goods
1929: U.S. economy collapses. 3 causes:
uneven distribution of wealth
overproduction of goods
demand for goods drop
1929: Stock market crashes
billions of $ gone!
businesses and banks fail
failing U.S. economy weakened economies all over the world
Rise of Fascism:
People turn to dictators to deal with the economic crisis
type of totalitarian gov. that emphasizes:
fascists promise to
Italians are upset over inflation and unemployment
many feared a communist revolution like Russia
people turn to fascism
used in Rome to symbolize unity and strength and also used in capital punishment local rulers
loyalty to the state
total obedience to the leader
fix the economy
restore pride
punish those responsible for the mess
promised strong economy, army, and leadership
popularity increased as economic conditions worsened
Benito Mussolini:
Mussolini's attack socialists and communists in the streets
he wins support of the middle class, aristocrats, and industry leaders
1922: 30,000 fascists march on Rome
convince King Victor Emmanuel II to put Mussolini in charge
Black Shirts
abolished democracy, outlawed political parties, and used the secret police to keep control
Rise of Hitler:
1920: Hitler joins the Nazi party
short for the National Socialist German Workers Party. Goals:
Great speaking ability made him the
fight communism
overturn the Treaty of Versailles
supporters were middle class workers
means "my struggle"
attempt failed; Hitler jailed for 9 months
Bad economy turns people to Hitler
Nazis are the largest party in 1932
1923: Nazis try to seize power
bans all other political parties
restore pride in Germany
Mein Kampf
Germans are the master race called the Aryans
"living room" expanded borders for Germans to live
1933: fear of Communism convinces the German president to name Hitler "Chancellor"
uses the or secret police to force obedience
Hitler bans labor unions and puts major businesses under gov. control
built roads, factories, weapons
created 5 million new jobs
greatly increased the size of the military
used the press, radio, artwork, and literature as propaganda tools
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