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Vegetation Regions in Canada

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Amy Martin

on 4 October 2012

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Transcript of Vegetation Regions in Canada

Seven Vegetation
Regions in
Canada Tundra Grasslands The soils of this vegetation region contains more humus than the mixed forest region and has less acidity because of the larger amount of deciduous tress. The dark brown topsoil is rich with humus. Summers in southwestern Ontario are long and hot while winters are relatively mild. This region receives much precipitation which is ideal for most of the trees that grow in this region. Sadly on some of this forest remains because most of it has been cleared for agricultural development and urban development. Because of the dry climate, species such as trembling aspen, willow, and spruce, grow in river valleys. The deep root system of the grass forms a sod mat. This absorbs moisture which therefore holds the soil in place. Even though the grass may dies of the roots still remain alive. What about it? This forest is a transition between the deciduous and the boreal forest. There is regular and abundant precipitation in this region which is very healthy for both types of trees. When the leaves from the wide range of trees falls to the ground it creates humus. The humus hold water and less soluble minerals are taken away from the grey brown colored top soil. Because of this, the mixed forest region in Canada is very suitable for farming. This region has
cold temperatures and short growing seasons. What about it? Vegetation? The tundra has a great lack of vegetation. Trees do not grow because
the climate is to cold and dry. Small shrubs, lichens, and mosses grow on ground level. What else? Wildlife? There is a small amount of wildlife in the tundra because of the lack of vegetation. It also limits the variety and population of species. The tundra has permafrost and only the top meter thaws during the summer. Because water cannot drain downwards the surface of the tundra becomes water logged. This results in an extremely short growing season. There is very little humus in the very thin layer of soil. This is because of the lack of vegetation, water logged soil, and the cold climate. Northern Canada South of the Tundra Coniferous tress grow south of the line
separating the tundra from the boreal
and taiga forest. Because coniferous tress
lose few needles in the year the humus
layer is very shallow. This makes the
soil grey. The needles that do drop are
acidic which makes the soil acidic.
This combined with the lack of humus
makes the soil unsuitable for
agriculture. Examples of trees
that grow in the Boreal
and Taiga Forest Coniferous White Spruce Balsam Fir Black Spruce Mixed Forest Boreal and
Taiga Forest South of the Boreal Forest The mixed forest is composed of
coniferous and deciduous tress. The
variety of trees is excellent for the
lumbering industry. Sadly, little of the
forest in the southern region remains
because of lumbering, agriculture, city development, and because of
transportation. Deciduous Forest Southwestern Ontario Soil? Examples of trees growing in the deciduous Forest Vegetation Region Maple Beech Hickory Ash Black walnut Southern Manitoba Saskatchewan and Alberta Three subdivisions Short-grass Prairie -in the driest areas of southern Saskatchewan and Alberta -vegetation consists of short grasses, sagebrush, and cacti -warm dry climate -little amount humus produced in soil -not suitable for farming but for cattle grazing. Grass Prairie -ideal for growing grains and oil seeds -large amounts of humus are produced which results in rich black soil. -produces some of the best grains in the world due to having the richest soil in Canada. Parkland -transition zone -long grass and clumps of trees -coniferous trees mainly in the northern park of the parkland and deciduous trees in the southern part. Cordilleran Temperatures are warmer in valleys and precipitation is moderately heavy on the west side of a mountain. This causes vegetation to differ greatly. Where the temperature is warmer grasses and cacti grow. The soil is also similar to the prairie grasslands here. Where there is a greater amount of precipitation forests grow. top of Cordilleran mountain ranges are similar to the tundra: only meadows of flowers and shrubs above the treeline. On the highest points of the slope no vegetation can survive resulting in snow, bare rock, and ice. Vegetation? On the mountains of the Western Cordillera there are many different types of soil. The amount of each soil and type differentiates on the elevation, rainfall, slope, and vegetation cover within the mountain range. The characteristics may change radically within short distances. Soil? Western Canada West Coast Forest Along the west coast grows lush forests. There is heavy precipitation and a mild climate which is excellent for growing. The trees that grow in this region have been crucial to British Columbia's lumbering industry. This rich vegetation provides much plant material which makes humus. The high rainfall leaches minerals in the soil deeply. West Coast Pictures The Tundra Boreal and Taiga Forest Mixed Forest Deciduous Forest Grasslands Vegetation Cordilleran Vegetation West Coast Forest Thank you for watching! By: Amy Martin For: Ms.Mohr Due: Friday, October 4, 2012
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