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Transportation for and with Pennsylvania Coal

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Laura Davis

on 20 April 2010

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Transcript of Transportation for and with Pennsylvania Coal

Transportation for and with Pennsylvania Coal Presented by: John Livingston and Laura Davis Early Transportation Canals Lehigh Canal Schuylkill Canal Delaware and Hudson Canal Josiah White and Erskine Hazard decided to build a canal along the Lehigh River from Mauch Chunk to Easton

Construction began in 1827

Completed in 1829, The canal was 60 feet wide at the beginning, 45 feet wide at the end, and 5 feet deep Lehigh Coal and Navigation Originially an outgrowth of Lehigh Coal mine Company

White and Hazard utilized the company and turned it into something bigger and more lucrative. This company controlled the biggest Transportation route, and by doing so were able to become a monopoly.
They Set High Transport Rates and prevented other companies from marketing coal at a profit

This company pioneered transport of large amounts of coal all throughout Pennsylvania inspired by farmers and loggers in the area,
construction began in 1816.

Completed in 1825, the canal was 100 miles long.

Provided Access to Previously Inaccessible Coal, and an alternative to the Monopoly held by the Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company
1791 – Philip Ginder

1792 – Lehigh Coal Mines Co.

Bad business
Difficult to ignite
Difficult to transport

Mine to Mauch Chunk
Nine miles
Wagons
Rough terrain

Transferred to river boats
First river journey in 1803
% of boats that made it?
War of 1812!
Interrupted flow of bituminous coal
Increased demand for anthracite coal
Josiah White and Erskine Hazard!
March 1818 – Granted authority to improve navigation of the Lehigh River by the State Legislature
July 1818 – Lehigh Navigation Company formed
Improvements by White/Hazard
1819 – Stone-surfaced road completed from Sharp Mines to Lehigh River
Primitive series of locks, dams, sluice-gates constructed along river
BUT…only one way!
Prior to Canals, the system was just not cutting it.

Demand for Coal Grew Rapidly after 1820
Difficult to Meet Growing Demand
Schuylkill Canal quickly became the busiest in the Anthracite Region Maurice and William Wentz owned land in the Northern Wyoming-Lackawanna Coal Field
They needed a Transportation Route to make the field profitable, therefore they decided to build a canal! Construction began in 1825:

It contained a 450 ft Tunnel and it was the largest Private Construction Project In U.S. History.

It was completed in 1829.
The Delaware and Hudson completed the Anthracite Canal System.

Three Companies controlled distribution of all Anthracite Coal:
Delaware and Hudson Supply New York and Places In Between
Lehigh and Schuylkill Ship Coal to Philadelphia and Points North and South to Baltimore
Railroads 1827 – First anthracite railroad
Began in January; finished in May
Called the “Summit Hill-Mauch Chunk Railroad”

How did it work?
“Trains”: up to seven cars (with four tons each)
Two trains = a “section”
For each three sections, a train of seven mule cars sent (with four mules each)
Mules return the cars on the return journey
1845 – White/Hazard build steam engines on Mt. Pisgah and Mt. Jefferson

Trains are pulled up Mt. Pisagh then travel downhill towards Mt. Jefferson

Trains are then pulled up Mt. Jefferson then travel downhill towards Summit Hill

And the mules live happily ever after…
Switchback railroads in operation until 1871

Operated as tourist attractions until 1933
Modern day roller coasters?
John Stevens – father of American railroads

1826: demonstrated steam locomotion in Hoboken, NJ (three years before Stephenson)

1st railroad – Baltimore & Ohio Railroad (1830)

Operated by horsepower until 1831

By 1840 – 3000 miles of railroads and 3300 miles of canals in operation
1842 – Philadelphia & Reading Railway opened to transport coal from Schuylkill Co. to Philadelphia

April 13, 1846 – Pennsylvania Railroad obtains charter from State Legislature

1850 – becomes first railway to own and operate an anthracite mine

1852 – Pittsburgh and Philadelphia linked for the first time via rail
Fusion of railroad and mine companies sparked creation of cartels, oligopolies, and monopolies
Modern Transportation Today, the most popular method of transporting coal remains with the railroads:
about 71% of all coal transported is by train.

Less popular methods of transportation (but still used) include barge, ship, truck and even pipeline. It is most often cheaper to transport coal on river barges.

However, this is not ideal because not all barges can take the coal where it needs to go. (Location is limited)

Trucks and Conveyers are most often used when the coal will be transported and used right near the Coal Mine. A pipeline can be used when coal is crushed and mixed with water.

When it becomes this mixture it can easily be sent through a "slurry" pipeline.

Use of Slurry Pipelines are widely debated. Effects of Transportation Coal transportation actually saw little increases
BUT…distances increased greatly

This led to profit growth of 3x in the 1870s

Increase in profit led to expansion (creating a cycle)
Skyrocketing profits --> government regulation
Exacerbated by the Panic of 1873
Selling worthless stock, merging companies, reduced rates to select shippers

1887 – Interstate Commerce Act
Established the Interstate Commerce Commission
Regulated competition between railroads
Set up safeguards against unfair business practices
World War I!
Increased demand
Gov’t control

1920 – Esch-Cummins Act
Increased ICC’s control
Encouraged mergers

Railroads returned to private sector in March
Roaring Twenties (almost)
Record profits
Other modes of transportation…
Labor Disputes
1926: Railway Labor Act

Great Depression
Significant losses
Money invested in diesel-electric trains
World War II!
Highest production rates to date
Private control

BUT…
Industry worn out from over-production
Worn down from competition with other means of transport
Never fully recovered
International Transportation Globally, coal is mined commercially in over 50 countries and it is used in over 70.

In the international market, coal is transported (usually) using large ships.
There are three different sizes of ships that can be used to transport coal internationally:
Handysize (40-45,000 DWT)
Panamax (60-80,000 DWT)
Capesize vessels (80,000 DWT)

DWT stands for Deadweight Tonnes - deadweight capacity of vessel comprising cargo, bunker fuel, fresh water, stores etc An extra tidbit: The USA is 7th on the top list of international exporters.
the majority in Coking coal. Life on the Canals Work Year = April Through November
Crew: Captain, Bowsman, and Drivers
Bowsman - steer, deckhand
Drivers led mule along tow path

Limited Facilities on Board

Meals Were Simple and Monotonous
Impact of Canals Canals opened the Northeast for industrialization and settlements.

They laid the foundation for the transformation of the region.


Conclusion From a hunter’s discovery of “stone coal” in 1791 to industrial regulatory legislation that framed current regulations…

Four phases
Early transportation (wagons, navigation)
Canals
Railroads
Modern transport
Transportation is one of the many visible contributions that coal has made to society

Both CAUSE & EFFECT of the industry’s success
Acted as a series of innovations that changed not only coal mining, but the world at large as well


…and if nothing else, supplied three pieces for the board game Monopoly…
Bibliography Batch, Rachel. "Overview: Mining Anthracite." explorepahistory.com. 2007. Web. 18 Apr 2010. <http://explorepahistory.com/story.php?storyId=11>.
Carr, Everette. "History of Lehigh Canal and Lehigh Valley Railroad." rootsweb.com. 2003. Web. 18 Apr 2010. <http://freepages.history.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~carrleith/lehighcanal1.html>.
"Coal Market, Coal Shipping - World Coal Institute." Home - World Coal Institute. World Coal Institute. Web. 19 Apr. 2010. <http://www.worldcoal.org/coal/market-amp-transportation/>.
"EIA Energy Kids - Coal." EIA Energy Kids. EIA Energy. Web. 19 Apr. 2010. <http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/kids/energy.cfm?page=coal_home-basics>.
Greenberg, Jr., William, and Robert Fischer. "Black Diamonds to Tidewater: A Brief Historical Perspective." www.gingerb.com. Black Diamonds to Tidewater, 13 Mar 2005. Web. 18 Apr 2010.
"History of the Switch Back Gravity Railroad." www.switchbackgravityrr.org. Switch Back Gravity Railroad Foundation, 27 Aug 2007. Web. 18 Apr 2010.
Modelski, Andrew. "History of Railroads and Maps." www.nationalatlas.gov. National Atlas of the United States, 17 Sep 2009. Web. 18 Apr 2010. <http://www.nationalatlas.gov/articles/history/a_railroads-p1.html>.
"RR Museum of PA :: RR History Timeline." www.rrmuseumpa.org. Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission. Web. 18 Apr 2010.
Withuhn, William. "Railroads in the United States." laughtergenealogy.com. Concord Learning Systems, 1999. Web. 18 Apr 2010. <http://www.laughtergenealogy.com/bin/histprof/misc/railroads.html>.
Also Used: Powerpoints from Class Hi Class.
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