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Verbs

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by

Whitney Schmidt

on 13 September 2015

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Transcript of Verbs

3 Types of Verbs
VOICE
Active vs. Passive
MOOD
Verb moods are classifications that indicate the attitude of the speaker.

5 Verb Moods are:
indicative
imperative
interrogative
conditional
subjunctive
VERBALS
Verbals are formed from verbs but are never used alone as action verbs in a sentence. Instead, verbals function as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs.

Three types of verbals are:
gerunds
participles
infinitives
More Info
Verb Facts
When the subject is the agent or doer of the action, the verb is in the active voice.
When the subject is the patient, target or undergoer of the action, the verb is said to be in the passive voice.
Verb Facts
Voice
Types
Mood
Verbals
Romina. (n.d.) Types of Verbs. Those Veracious Verbs. Talk School of Languages. Retrieved July 2, 2015, from http://www.talk.edu/learn-english/grammar/verb-tenses/those-vexacious-verbs/
More Info
Basic Verb Info
Participles, Gerunds, & Infinitives
Active & Passive Voice
Participles
& Participial Phrases
Gerunds
& Gerund Phrases
Infinitives
& Infinitive Phrases
Passive Voice
Most
of your sentences should be written in
Active
voice!
Active Voice
Verb Moods
http://www.slideshare.net/diana.koscik/gerund-powerpoint
Indicitave Mood
Subjunctive mood
Interrogative MOod
Imperative Mood
Conditional MOod
The conditional mood indicates a conditional state that will cause something else to happen.
The conditional is marked by the words
might
,
could
,
would
, and
if/then.
Examples:
The engine on the old care might start if I jiggle the keys in the ignition.
The bomb could explode if the FBI agent jiggles that switch.
Infinitive
= to + verb

An
infinitive phrase
consists of the infinitive and any modifiers, nouns, and/or pronouns that directly relate to the infinitive.



Infinitive = to + verb

An infinitive may be used as a noun, adjective, or adverb.

Examples of infinitives:
I need
to study
for my test.
Sarah loves
to write
.
To give
is better than
to receive
.

More info: https://goo.gl/EMalKT
An
infinitive phrase
consists of the infinitive and any modifiers, nouns, and/or pronouns that directly relate to the infinitive.

Examples of infinitive phrases:
We intended
to leave early
.
Carter agreed
to give his brother a ride
.
They asked me
to bring some food
.
Everyone wanted Carol
to be the captain of the team
.

More info: https://goo.gl/EMalKT
Gerund
- a word that is based on a verb but functions like a noun

An
gerund phrase
consists of the gerund and any modifiers, nouns, and/or pronouns that directly relate to the gerund.



An
gerund phrase
consists of the gerund and any modifiers, nouns, and/or pronouns that directly relate to the gerund.

Examples of gerund phrases:
Finding a needle in a haystack
is a difficult task.
I appreciate you
offering me this gift
.
Kate was scolded for
leaving early from school
.
Being the team leader
made Jeff feel uneasy.

More info: https://goo.gl/eRLOuy
Gerund
- a word that is based on a verb but functions like a noun

Examples of gerunds:
Studying
will help you pass the test.
They do not appreciate my
singing
.
The police arrested him for
speeding
.
His cat's favorite activity is
sleeping
.

More info: https://goo.gl/eRLOuy
Participle
- a word that is based on a verb but functions like an adjective

An
participial phrase
consists of the participle and any modifiers, nouns, and/or pronouns that directly relate to the participle.



Participle
- a word that is based on a verb but functions like an
adjective

Examples of
past
participles:
Adored
by her fans, the singer received a standing ovation.
Having eaten
already, John was not hunger at dinnertime.
Please bring the
required
homework assignments to class tomorrow.

Examples of
present
participles:
The
crying
baby had a wet diaper.
Smiling, she hugged the
panting
dog.

More info: https://goo.gl/L9SFWj
An
participial phrase
consists of the participle and any modifiers, nouns, and/or pronouns that directly relate to the participle.

Examples of participial phrases:
Adored by her fans
, the singer received a standing ovation.
Shivering with fear
, Candice screamed when she saw the spider.
Removing his shoes
, Jack felt tired after his workout.

More info: https://goo.gl/L9SFWj
When the subject is the agent or doer of the action, the verb is in the
active
voice.

Examples of active voice:

The scientist conducted an experiment to test his theory.

The ferocious dog bit the boy.
When the subject is the patient, target or undergoer of the action, the verb is said to be in the
passive
voice.

Examples of passive voice:

The road was crossed by the chicken.

The city has been scorched by the dragon's fiery breath.

It has been proven that smoking causes cancer.
Voice Shifts
Avoid illegal voice shifts!

Shifting from one voice to another in the same sentence can:
make the sentence hard to read
make the message less direct
make the message less emphatic

Inconsistent:
Beautiful birds were seen as she entered the garden.

Consistent:
She saw beautiful birds as she entered the garden.
(a shift from passive to active voice)
(Both verbs are in the active voice.)
Helpful Hint:

Usually, when a sentence contains two or more verbs, all verbs in the sentence should maintain the same voice.
Inconsistent:

When the children turned on the tv, a buzzing sound was heard.

Consistent:

When the children turned on the tv, they heard a buzzing sound.
Voice Shift -
Rule Exception
Rule
Exception
Inconsistent:

Two men escaped from prison yesterday, but they were captured immediately.
Usually, when a sentence contains two or more verbs, all verbs in the sentence should maintain the same voice.
Sometimes, maintaining an emphasis on the original subject of the sentence requires a shift in voice.
(a shift from active to passive voice)
(Both verbs are in the active voice.)
(a shift from active to passive voice)
*Note: The shift in this sentence is desirable because both parts of the sentence focus on the original subject, the two men. One way to recognize the shift is that in the first part of the sentence, the two men are doing the action, but in the second part of the sentence, the action is being done to them.
Mood Shifts
Avoid illegal mood shifts!

Shifts in mood often occur when giving instructions.

Inconsistent:
Take two aspirins, and then you should call your doctor in the morning.

Consistent:
Take two aspirins, and then call your doctor in the morning.
(a shift from imperative to indicative mood
(Both verbs are in the imperative mood.)
or opinion.
.
Compiled by: Mrs. Schmidt, English Department,
Maryville Junior High School
Compiled by: Mrs. Schmidt, English Department,
Maryville Junior High School
Function
Function
Function
Infinitives function as
adjectives
,
adverbs
, or
nouns
. As
nouns
, they can serve as a
subject
or a
direct object
of a sentence.
Function:
Hint:
The word
to
can be either part of an infinitive OR a preposition - NOT both.
To referee
demands patience.

Athletes often try
to argue
.
Players may try
to influence
the call.

The team is going
to
the playoffs.
SUBJECT
DIRECT OBJECT
to
+ verb = infinitive

To
without

a verb serves as a preposition to begin a prepositional phrase, as in this example. Therefore, this sentence does NOT contain an infinitive.
Gerunds function as
nouns
, and they can serve as the
subject
, a
direct object
, or the
object of a preposition
.
Blocking
requires strength.
The athletes enjoy
exercising
.
They maintain endurance by
running
.
subject
direct object
object of the preposition
examples:
Punctuation Rules
A participle functions as an
adjective
that can modify a noun or pronoun.
The
kicked
ball soared through the air.
A participial phrase that is placed at the beginning of a sentence is always set off with a comma.
Place the participial phrase as close to the modified phrase as possible. Otherwise, the sentence may be unclear or contain dangling modifiers.
If the participial phrase is necessary to identify the modified word, do not use commas. However, use commas if it simply provides additional information.
comma rules!
Example:


Running for the ball, a player slipped in the mud.
participial phrase
comma
Examples:
Examples:


Playing baseball, the birds chirped loudly.
Playing baseball, John heard the birds chirped loudly.
Playing baseball, the birds chirped loudly so that John heard.
The player kicking the ball is Jaden.
Jaden, kicking the ball, scored the winning point.
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