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Elements & Principles of Design

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naomi berhe

on 11 March 2014

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Transcript of Elements & Principles of Design

Elements & Principles of Design
Elements & Principles of Design
Elements of Design
Categories of Space :
Space is a lot like shape, because they both have positive and negative space ( for shape it’s positive and negative shape). Like shape, the positive space is the actual sculpture, and the negative space is the space around the sculpture.
Picture Plane
- is the flat surface of your drawing paper or canvas.
- is the organization and placement of the elements on your picture plane.
Focal Point
- is the object or area you want the viewer to look at first.
Thank You! :)
are used to define shapes, it contours, and outlines. Lines also help to figure out what the mass or volume of an object are. Lines can be an actual mark which was drawn or painted on a surface, or it could just be implied by shadows and edges of shapes.
Principles of Design
Movement / Rhythm

What are the Elements/ Principles of design?
Balance can be symmetrical ("formal"), where elements are given equal "weight" from an imaginary line in the middle of a piece. The parts of an image are organized so that one side mirrors the other.

Or asymmetrical ("informal") balance occurs when elements are placed unevenly in a piece, but work together to produce harmony overall. When one side of a composition does not reflect the design of the other.

refers to areas in an image that are given importance and value because they draw the viewer’s attention to it. Emphasis can also be referred to as dominance or focal point, which is the one area or thing that stands out the most.
can be used to show variation in an image or design. It displays differences in two different sections of the image. Contrast can also be used to show emphasis in any part of he image. A large difference between two things can create interest and tension.

means making everything in an image seem like they belong together, and balanced throughout the picture. Unity helps the design to be seen as one design instead of randomness all around the design.
When all the elements and principles work together to create a pleasing image.
is the movement or variation characterized by the regular recurrence or alternation of different quantities or conditions. In simpler words, it's just like pattern and shows that the design has a 'beat' or 'flow' going with it.
A regular repetition of elements to produce the look and feel of movement.

is the suggestion or illusion of motion in a painting, sculpture, or design. For example, circles going diagonally up and down from right to left could show that the design moves up and to the right or down and to the left.
Characteristics of Lines:
- thick, thin, tapering, uneven
- long, short, continuous, broken
- horizontal, vertical, diagonal, curving, perpendicular, oblique, parallel, radial, zigzag
- sharp, blurry, fuzzy, choppy
- sharp, jagged, graceful, smooth
Types of Lines:
- Lines made by the edge of an object or its silhouette.
Contour Lines
- Lines that describe the shape of an object and the interior detail.
Expressive Lines
- Line that are energetic and catches the movement and gestures of an active figure.
Sketch Lines
- Lines that captures the appearance of an object or impression of a place.
Calligraphic Lines
- Greek word meaning “beautiful writing.” Precise, elegant handwriting or lettering done by hand. Also artwork that has flowing lines like an elegant handwriting.
Implied Line
-Lines that are not actually drawn but created by a group of objects seen from a distance.
Categories of Shapes:
Geometric Shapes
- circles, squares, rectangles and triangles. We see them in architecture and manufactured items.
Organic Shapes
- Leaf, seashells, flowers. We see them in nature and with characteristics that are free flowing, informal and irregular.
Positive Shapes
- are the solid forms in a design such as a bowl of fruit. In a sculpture it is the solid form of the sculpture.
Categories of Shapes Cont.:
Negative Shapes
- In a drawing it is the space around the positive shape or the shape around the bowl of fruit. In sculpture it is the empty shape around and between the sculptures.
Static Shapes
- Shapes that appears stable and resting.
Dynamic Shapes
- Shapes that appear moving and active.
Categories of Texture:
Real Texture
-is the actual texture of an object. Artist may create real texture in art to give it visual interest or evoke a feeling.
Implied Texture
- is where a piece of art is made to look like a certain texture. Like a drawing of a tree trunk may look rough but in fact it is just a smooth piece of paper
Categories of Values:
- adding white to color paint to create lighter values such as light blue or pink.
- adding black to paint to create dark values such as dark blue or dark red.
High- Key
- is where the picture is all light values.
Form Types:







Form is the three-dimensionality of an object. Shading a circle in a certain manner can turn it into a sphere.
The Elements of Design
Knowing what the elements and principles in design is the first step in creating successful visual compositions. These principles, which may overlap, are used in all visual design fields, including graphic design, industrial design, architecture, photography and fine art.

Design is the organized arrangement of one or more elements and principles (e.g. line color or texture) for a purpose.
The Principles of Design
The composition and the relationships of the elements used are organized and managed by the principles of design. Successful design incorporates the use of the principles and elements to serve the designer's purpose and visual goals. There are no rules for their use. The designer's purpose and intent drives the decisions made to achieve harmony between the elements.
Color wheels are a tool used to organize color. It is made up of:
Primary Colours
-Red, Yellow, Blue these color cannot be mixed, they must be bought in some form.
Secondary Colours
- Orange, Violet, Green, these colors are created by mixing two primaries.
Tertiary / Intermediate Colors
- Red, Orange, Yellow Green, Blue Violet, etc.; mixing a primary with a secondary creates these colors.
Analogous colors
- The analog colors are those colors which lie on either side of any given color.
Complementary Colors
- are colors that are opposite each other on the color wheel. When placed next to each other they look bright and when mixed together they neutralize each other.
- is where one color is used but in different values and intensity.
Warm colors
- are on one side of the color wheel and they give the felling of warmth for example red, orange and yellow are the color of fire and feel warm.
Cool colors
- are on the other side of the color wheel and they give the feeling of coolness for example blue, violet, are the color of water, and green are the color of cool grass.
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