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Copy of CHAPTER 22

Exile in Dapitan, 1892-96

daryl yaranon

on 31 January 2013

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Transcript of Copy of CHAPTER 22

CHAPTER 22 Exile in Dapitan, 1892-96 Dapitan (Mindanao) – place managed by Jesuitswhere Rizal was exiled Rizal kept communication with:
1.His family
2.Fellow reformists
3.Eminent scientists and scholars of Europe Beginning of Exile in Dapitan Beginning of Exile in Dapitan

Cebu – steamer which brought Rizal to Dapitan-Carried a letter from Fr. Pablo Pastells (Superior of the Jesuit Society of the Philippines) to Fr. Antonio Obach which states that Rizal could live at the parish convent if he will:

a. Retract his errors regarding religion

b. Perform church rites & make a general confession

c. Conduct himself in an exemplary manner as a Spanish subject and man of religion Captain Ricardo Carnicero – in his home did Rizal stay; he was good to Rizal; he gave good reports about Rizal and gave him complete freedom (proved by his permission for Rizal to ride his chestnut horse.)
A Don Ricardo Carnicero
– poem which Rizal wrote for Captain Carnicero on his birthday Wins in Manila Lottery Rizal – Pastells Debate on Religion Wins in Manila Lottery
Butuan – mail boat which brought the news about Rizal’s winning in the lottery.

Lottery Ticket No. 9736 – second-prize winning ticket jointly owned by Rizal, Capt.Carnicero & Francisco Equilior (Spaniard from Dipolog) P20,000 – lottery prize; P6,200 of it was given to Rizal; P2,000 of his share he gave to his father and P200 to Basa, the rest he invested thru purchasing agricultural lands from the coast of Talisay.

Three (3) pesetas – amount Rizal allotted for lottery tickets every month. Rizal – Pastells Debate on Religion
The debate started when Pastells sent Rizal a book by Sarda along with an advice that Rizal should desist from his
majaderas (foolishness) in viewing religion from the perspective of individual judgement and self-esteem.

The debate can be read in four (4) letters.

Rizal was bitter against the friars because they commit abuses under the cloak of religion. Father Pastells tried to bring back to Catholicism Rizal by telling him that human intelligence is limited, thus he needs the guidance of God.

Behind the debate, Pastells and Rizal were friends as evidently pictured when:

1. Pastells gave Rizal a copy of Imitacion deCristo
by Fr. Thomas a Kempis

2. Rizal gave Pastells a bust of St. Paul whichhe had made Rizal continued to hear Rizal Challenges a Frenchman to a Duel Rizal Challenges a Frenchman to a Duel

mass and celebrate religious events.

Mr. Juan Lardet – a French businessman whom Rizal had a conflict.

Lardet purchased logs from Rizal’s lands of which some are of poor quality. Lardet was disgusted of the business deal and expressed this in a letter to Antonio Miranda. Miranda showed Rizal the letter which made Rizal angry, eventually challenging Lardet into a duel. Captain Carnicero heard of this and advised Lardet to apologize for he would not win against Rizal because he was expert in fencing and pistol shooting.
Lardet wrote an apology letter to Rizal which Rizal accepted. Rizal and Father Sanchez Rizal and Father Sanchez

In his aspiration to reconcile Rizal with the Church, Father Pastells sent to Dapitan:

1.Father Obach, Cura of Dapitan

2.Fr. Jose Vilaclara, Cura of Dipolog

3.Fr. Francisco Paula de Sanchez, Rizal’sfavorite teacher at Ateneo de
Manila Though Sanchez failed to persuade Rizal to discard unorthodox views, he helped Rizal in beautifying the town plaza.

Estudios sobre la lengua tagala
– manuscript which Rizal gave to Sanchez on his birthday. Idyllic Life in Dapitan Idyllic Life in Dapitan
Among his family members who visited Rizal were:
1.His mother
2.His sisters Trinidad, Maria and Narcisa
3.Nephews Teodosio, Estanislao, Mauricioand Prudencio
Rizal built a house by the seashore of Talisay surrounded by fruit trees, a school for boys, and a hospital for his patients. Rizal’s Encounter with the Friar’s Spy Rizal’s Encounter with the Friar’s Spy
Pablo Mercado – assumed name of the spy who visited Rizal at his house and pretended to be a relative by showing a photo of Rizal and a pair of buttons with the initials P.M. as evidence of kinship.
The spy offered to be Rizal’s courier of letters for the patriots in Manila. Rizal became suspicious and wanted to throw the spy outside but considering his values and late hour of the night, he offered the spy to spend the night at his house. The next day, he sent the spy away. The spy stayed in Dapitan and spread talks among the people that he was a relative to Rizal.
Rizal went to the comandancia and reported the impostor to Captain Juan Sitges (successor of Carnicero)
Sitges ordered Pablo Mercado’s arrest and told Anastacio Adriatico to investigate him immediately. Florencio Namanan – a.k.a Pablo Mercado, single and about 30 years old who was hired by the Recollect friars to spy on Rizal’s activities.
However, Sitges stopped the investigation and forwarded it to Governor General Blanco who, in turn, kept the issue as highly confidential.
The secret mission of Pablo Mercado was not an assassination attempt but espionage only. As Physician in Dapitan As Physician in Dapitan
Rizal continued practicing medicine in Dapitan. Most of his patients were poor so he gave them free medicine as well.
Dona Teodora and Maria lived with Rizal for a year and a half. It is here when Rizal operated his mother’s right eye. Though the operation was successful, his mother had a wound infection after ignoring Rizal’s instruction of not removing the bandages. However, the infection was immediately treated. Don Ignacio Tumarong – Rizal’s patient who wasable to see again after his operation; he paid Rizal P3,000.

Don Florencio Azcarraga – rich hacendero of Aklan who was cured of eye ailment, in turn he gave Rizal acargo of sugar.

Rizal prescribed medicinal plants to his poor patients. Water System for Dapitan Water System for Dapitan
As a perito agrimensor (expert surveyor), Rizal applied his engineering knowledge by constructing a system of waterworks to furnish clean water to the townspeople.
Mr. H.F. Cameron – American engineer who praised Rizal for his engineering ingenuity. Community Projects for Dapitan Community Projects for Dapitan
When Rizal arrived in Dapitan, he decided to improve it, to the best of his God-given talents, and to awaken the civic consciousness of its people. Rizal had:
1.Drained the marshes to get rid of malaria that was infesting Dapitan.
2.Equipped the town with lighting systemusing P500 one of his patients paid him. The lighting system consisted of Coconut oil lamps.
3.Beautified the town of Dapitan byremodeling the town plaza and making a huge relief map of Mindanao out of earth,stones and grass. Rizal as Teacher Rizal as Teacher
Rizal established in Dapitan a school. It began with 3 pupils who increased to 16 and eventually 21.
16 of his pupils did not pay tuition. Instead of charging them fees, Rizal made them work in his gardens and construction projects. Rizal taught them reading, writing, languages(Spanish and English), geography, history, mathematics (arithmetic and geometry), industrial work, nature study, morals and gymnastics.
Formal classes were between 2:00 p.m. and 4:00 p.m. He also applied the “emperor” system like that of Ateneo. During recess, pupils built fires to drive away insects, pruned fruit trees and manured the soil.
Outside class hours, students had gymnastics, boxing, wrestling, stone-throwing, swimming, arnis and boating.
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