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Ritalin & Adderall

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nada abdullah

on 7 March 2014

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Transcript of Ritalin & Adderall

Factors contributing to use of
Ritalin & Adderall
1. To treat children’s behavioral problems since 1937.
2. A low dosage of Ritalin helps children’s cognitive processing.
3. A high dosage helps children with severe ADHD.
4. Narcolepsy.
5. Treating lethargy.
6. Depression.
7. Neural insult and obesity.

Type of drug abused according to the health problem
Ritalin abuse may cause health problem :
Insomnia
Weight loss.
Headache
Irritability
Nausea
Dizziness

patterns of Ritalin & Adderall
1. One study found that children who took Ritalin were less likely to abuse illegal drugs as the aged.

2. Ritalin has a good safety record with school-aged children.
6. Using Ritalin to treat children exhibiting ADHD is paradoxical. Logically, if a child is hyperactive, Ritalin should increase activity. Instead, the drug helps moderate a child’s activity level.

8. Ritalin and other stimulants enhance the functioning of the reticular activating system, which helps children focus attention and filter out extraneous stimuli.

9. It is estimated that Ritalin and other stimulants are effective with 80% to 90% of children with ADHD.

10. Many adverse effects have been associated with Ritalin. These include insomnia, weight loss, headaches, nausea, dizziness, and irritability (including skin rash, urticaria, fever, arthralgia, exfoliative dermatitis, erythema multiforme with histopathological findings of necrotizing vasculitis, and thrombocytopenic purpura).

11. Have no effects on children’s growth.
Factors contributing to Ritalin & Adderall misuse
1. To enhance academic performance.
2. tolerance
Dependence producing drugs
Ritalin does not cause physical dependency in children , although psychological dependency is possible, a rare problem in facial tic.

If tics appear , they tend to subside once the person stops taking Ritalin

12. Cause no significant change in height or body mass index.

13. The nonmedical use of Adderall is twice as likely by full-time college students as similar aged individuals not in college.

14. Compared to college student who don’t use Adderall, nonmedical users are more likely to use marijuana, cocaine nonprescription tranquilizers and nonprescription pain relievers.

15. It produces such effects as increasing or maintaining alertness, combating fatigue, and improving attention.

16. Ritalin is effective in increasing wakefulness vigilance, and performance.

The effect of different factors affection Ritalin using behavior
stimulants have been used to treat children’s behavioral problem , the most prescribed drugs for Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are Ritalin.
The question is :
What are the factors affecting Ritalin using behavior ?
There are a group of student use it as a stimulant especially before exams , that make him awake to study.

Awareness
The increase in the diagnosis of ADHD is partly attributable to heightened public awareness and change in educational policy in which school are obliged to identify children with disorder.

Done by:
nada alrokaimy 432201513
reem alomair 432200826
lina alghunaim 432200922
afrah alshammari 432200041
amal almutairi 432020355
THANK YOU
Ritalin
&
Adderall
methamphetamine
patterns of methamphetamine
- Methamphetamine produce many adverse effects, including:
slurred speech.
Loss of appetite.
Excitement.
Increase blood pressure and heart rate.
Irregular heartbeat.
A pounding heart sensation.
Sever chest pain.
Hot flashes.
Excessive perspiration.
Increased blood flow to the extremities.
Anxiety.
Tremors.
Confusion.
Insomnia.
Convulsions.
Memory loss.
Violent behavior.
Elevated body temperature.
continue
Duration of the onset of the effect is depending on the way of intake; the onset of effects from injecting methamphetamine occurs immediately. When this drug is snorted, effects occur within 3 to 5 minutes; when ingested orally, effects occur within 15 to 20 minutes.

The chronic abuse of amphetamine and methamphetamine is characterized by violent and erratic behavior, as well as a psychosis similar to schizophrenia, that can involve paranoia, picking at the skin, and auditory/ visual hallucinations. All forms of methamphetamine are highly addictive and toxic.
factors contributing to methamphetamine use
Treat narcolepsy.
Relieve the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease.
Treat Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder .
Increase activity, strength, and alertness as they are CNS stimulants .
Obesity.
Factors contributing to methamphetamine misuse
used for non-medical purpose “speed freaks”.
tolerance.
Amphetamine & Methamphetamine
& Ritalin & Adderall

Amphetamines

Amphetamines
has played an important role since first marketed in 1927.

During world war II, they were given to American soldiers to help them overcome:
Fatigue ,
heighten their mood ,
and improve their endurance.
They do, However, produce side effects that are disadvantageous in combat.
Hitler's bizarre behavior
near to end of world war II, in which he was alternately depressed and happy, is speculated to have been caused by
amphetamine
.

When
Amphetamines
were developed, they were effective in treating asthma.

Under the name
Benzedrine
, amphetamine was sold in inhalers.

Eventually, the inhalers were used non-medically, and the U.S.food and drug administration(FDA) banned
Amphetamines
were used for :
Treating depression.
Increase work capacity.
Treating narcolepsy.
Narcoleptics fall asleep spontaneously and sometimes sleep for long periods. It was noted that narcoleptics patient given amphetamine were not hungry.
The drug then was used to suppress appetite and ward off fatigue.
Amphetamines

and amphetamines-like drugs are still used

Amphetamine
can be administered by:

Injection- Snorting- Inhalation

When taking orally, they produce peak effects in
2 to 3 hours
The half life is
10-13 hours
, and they are not totally eliminated from the body for about two days.
The effect are felt more quickly-usually within
5 minutes
-when they are injected.

Because tolerance to amphetamine develops
quickly
, many users don't derive pleasure from the drug, therefore, they increase the dosage or go on binges to maintain their high.


Because
amphetamine increase activity of the sympathetic nervous system, they are classified as sympathomimetic drugs.

-
Amphetamines
are absorbed by the blood and distributed rapidly .

- Their chemical structure is similar to that of neurotransmitters norepinephrine and dopamine.

-
Amphetamines
stimulate receptor sites for these neurotransmitters .

-When dopamine receptors are stimulated, the person becomes euphoric and more active.
Amphetamines
are removed from the body in two ways:
1- they are excreted through urine after being transformed by liver enzymes.
2- they are deactivated and removed by adding molecules to amphetamine compound.


Physiological effects:
Paranoia.
Violent behavior.
Restlessness.
Agitation.
Confusion.
Anxiety.
Hallucinations
Their physiological effects are similar to those in people who are emotionally aroused.


Effects of amphetamines

Tremors.
Tinnitus.
Dry mouth.
Excessive sweating.
High blood pressure.
Poor coordination.
Convulsion.
Cardiac arrest.
Physical effects:

- Japan and Sweden have had far more severe problems with amphetamines abuse than the United
State has.

- Consequences of Amphetamine use:
Like cocaine, amphetamine do not produce classic withdrawal symptoms similar to those with narcotics or barbiturates.

- Still, most people who are dependent on amphetamines experience withdrawal, continue using them despite problems, Can not stop, develop tolerance and give up other activities to use amphetamines.

- Many of the withdrawal symptoms subside within a couple of weeks, but sleep disruption can continue for up to four weeks.


The Amphetamine Trade
- After several days of moderate to heavy use, individuals crash.
- This condition is marked by symptoms opposite to the effects of amphetamines:
- symptoms of amphetamine withdrawal:
Lethargy.
Exhaustion.
Depression.
And hunger.

- Within hours after an individual stops taking large dose:
energy levels decline.
mood is altered.
And sleep may follow for up to 24 hours.

a condition marked by:
Paranoia.
Aggressiveness.
Fearfulness.
Disordered thinking.
Mania.
And hallucination.

Is significant problem related to chronic use.
Amphetamine psychosis
-
Amphetamines
can cause brain damage and exacerbate Tourette's syndrome and tar-dive dyskinesia.

- The dosage of amphetamine required to generate side effects varies among individuals.
Through beginning users are more likely to have side effects because they have less tolerance.
- At little as
2 mg
can produce negative side effects in some people. Whereas other people can take
15 mg
before having adverse effects.
Paranoia.
Auditory hallucinations.
Death.
Irreversible damage to blood vessels in the brain.
Increase risk of Parkinson’s disease.
The dilation of pupils.
An emerging problem of methamphetamine-related identity theft.
continue patterns of Methamphetamine
Abstract
Typical use patterns of methamphetamine (MA) users were examined using self-report measures from 120 MA and 63 cocaine users.

Twenty (14 MA and 6 cocaine) of the participants also took part in structured interviews designed to provide more specific descriptions of their drug use.

The typical MA user uses more than 20 days a month. Use is evenly spaced throughout the day, and although the amount of drug used per day is not different, MA users use fewer times per day than do cocaine users.
A comparison of patterns of methamphetamine and cocaine use
Fewer of the cocaine users are continuous users, and they use in the evening rather than the daytime.

The cocaine pattern of fewer days of use, evening use, and more frequent doses per day fits a picture of recreational use, whereas the all-day-most-days methamphetamine pattern does not.
include the following:
• loss of appetite—extreme, rapid weight loss.
• high energy level or restlessness.
• talkativeness.
• sores on skin from scratching at “crank bugs”.
• insomnia.
• paranoia.
• dry mouth.
• dilated pupils.
• distorted auditory and visual perceptions.
• repetitive motor activity.
• declining job performance.
• damaged relationships.
• stealing or borrowing money.
• secretive, defensive behavior about activities and possessions.
• unusual mood changes.
• abrupt temper outbursts.
• deterioration in personal appearance and hygiene.
Signs and symptoms of a meth users
3. Children on Ritalin are at no greater cardiovascular risk than children not on Ritalin.

4. Compared with amphetamines and cocaine, Ritalin is milder and causes fewer side effects.

5. The typical dose is 10 mg to 30 mg in the morning and at midday.

Types of Methamphetamine according to
health problems
1. L-methamphetamine (Levo-methamphetamine):
raises the blood pressure and causes the heart to beat rapidly, but does not increase alertness very much. Shakes/tremors and stomach cramps are common physical side-effects.

2. D/L-methamphetamine (Dextro-levo methamphetamine):
is made with the amalgam (P2P) method. It was popular during the 1960s, but it is still made and distributed. It has to be injected to get the desired rush and produces side effects such as shakes, tremors, and stomach cramps.

3. D-methamphetamine (Dextro-methamphetamine):
is currently the most common. It is made by the ephedrine reduction process. It is 2 to 10 times as physiologically active as L-methamphetamine. It increases the heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, and rate of breathing and dilates the pupils, and has fewer adverse side effects than the other two types of methamphetamine.

The effect of different factors affecting Methamphetamine using behavior
▪ Addiction.

▪ Psychosis, including:
-paranoia.
-hallucinations.
-repetitive motor activity.

▪ Changes in brain structure and function.

▪ Deficits in thinking and motor skills.

▪ Increased destructibility.

▪ Memory loss.

▪ Aggressive or violent behavior.

▪ Mood disturbances.

▪ Severe dental problems Weight loss.

Plan of health education program about Methamphetamine
▪ Help teens resist peer pressure to use drugs.

▪ Attend city, township, and county meetings.

▪ Create meth awareness commercial to air before movies at a local theater.
▪ Create a map showing the locations of meth lab seizures in your area.

▪ Invite local artists to create pieces that depict the tragedy of meth addiction and the hope of recovery.
▪ Create meth awareness posters, brochures, flyers, and billboards.

▪ Start a local youth “improv” troupe to perform vignettes and to lead commu nitydiscussions about meth
Full transcript