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Cold War

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by

Marci Ward

on 2 May 2015

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Transcript of Cold War

The Cold War
Cold War reaches Asia
Mao Zedong makes China communist in 1949
Korean War
1950: Communist N. Korea invaded S. Korea

Korean War: US troops sent to fight spread of Communism (containment policy and domino theory)

1953: war ended, Korea split at 38th parallel again
Vietnam War
Yalta Conference 1945
Attended: US, SU, BR
Terms:
- Divide Germany and city of Berlin into zones
- Elections in E. Europe
- Stalin gets Poland
- Split Korea (N- SU, S- US)
Tensions Build
Potsdam Conference 1945: US says Poland should hold elections --> Stalin mad

United Nations (peace keeping organization) formed, SU left out

DISTRUST between US and SU
Lines are Drawn
Stalin invades E. Euro. countries to protect SU from invasion

"Iron Curtain": imaginary line drawn across Europe, no trade or communication
Division of Germany
1948: Stalin refuses to give up E. Germany as agreed, blockaded E. Berlin

Berlin Airlift: US dropped food and supplies into city
American Response
Containment (Truman Doctrine): must stop spread of communism

Domino Theory: if one nation becomes communist, surrounding nations will too

Marshall Plan: give $ to weak nations to resist Communism
Alliances Form
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization): US, Canada, and W. Euro

Warsaw Pact: SU and the E. Euro satellite nations
"Great Leap Forward": killed "capitalists", Five Year Plan for industrializing, 30-50 mill. died of starvation
Cultural Revolution (1962): Red Guard army moved through China to strengthen Communism, shut down schools, professionals sent to work in fields, killed opponents
Communist N Vietnam invades S Vietnam

US sends troops in 1955 (containment policy)

N Vietnam uses guerilla warfare, US uses bombs and chemical warfare

US withdraws troops in 1973, S Vietnam becomes Communist
Cold War Heats Up
Arms Race: both sides spend $$$ on weapons (SU makes atomic bomb in 1949)
Transition of Power in the Soviet Union
1953: Stalin dies, Khrushchev comes to power

His policies: "Destalinization", tightened control over satellite countries, built a wall around E. Berlin
Faceoff in the Western Hemisphere
1959: Fidel Castro becomes communist dictator of Cuba (with SU support)

1961: Cuban rebels (trained by CIA) try to invade Cuba, invasion fails, US embarrassed
Cuban Missile Crisis: US discovered Soviet missiles in Cuba, US blockaded Cuba, world on brink of nuclear war, SU finally gave in
Turmoil in Cambodia
US began bombing Cambodia (next to Vietnam) as part of containment policy
Tensions cool down
Detente: relaxation of tensions (1964-1979)

Reasons:
- Khrushchev removed
- SU progress slows down
- Strained relationship between CH and SU
- US and SU drained of $$

Ended when SU invades Afghanistan in 1979
Soviet Union After Khrushchev
Natan Sharansky: imprisoned by SU in 1977, fought for human rights
The Gorbachev Years (1985-1991)
- Glasnost: "openness"- free speech and press
- Perestroika: economic freedom
- Meetings w/ Reagan about limiting nuclear weapons
Iron Curtain Falls
Pope John Paul II: First non-Italian Pope in 400 years, inspires Polish people to resist communism

Lech Walesa: led workers' strike in Poland, helped Poland become non-Communist

1989: Berlin Wall comes down
End of the Cold War
1976: Mao Zedong dies, China reforms to limited capitalism

1989: Tienanmen Square- communist forces open fire on student protestors in China
1991: SU dissolves due to $$ problems, social unrest, independence movements in E. Europe
Post WWII World
US and SU are two major superpowers (Europe weakened by war)
US
SU
- Democracy
- Capitalism
- Atomic Bombs
- $$$
- Fear of communism & another Hitler
- Totalitarianism
- Communism
- Massive "Red Army"
- Fear of atomic bomb and future invasions
vs.
A 45 yr conflict between US and SU, but with no direct, officially declared military confrontation
What is the Cold War?
"Iron Curtain"
SU launches Sputnik (satellite) in 1957 --> "Space Race"

Both countries spend $$$ to get to the moon first (symbol of better technology)
Khmer Rouge (communists) took control

Pol Pot (leader) ordered genocide of 4 million
US Wins! Neil Armstrong walks on the moon in 1969
Who does this represent and why?
What does the 'baby' represent?
Whats in its mouth?
Full transcript