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Herero Genocide

Gender and Mass Atrocities Conference
by

Emily Newton

on 8 April 2013

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Transcript of Herero Genocide

Works Cited Background Information The Herero Genocide Colonial Legacy of Namibia
Who are the Herero
Was it really Genocide? Masculinity as Basis for Genocide German identity
Conceptions of supremacy and superiority
"Natural and healthy"
Acceptance by Government and Military Command Masculinity Influenced Conduct Indiscriminate killing
"...completely destroy the Herero nation"
Men, women, and children
Terror on a massive scale Masculinity Justified the Genocide Construction of a "Race War"
Rumors
Indiscriminate killing of Herero and mutilating of their bodies?
Soldiers not responsible for their actions
"Just" war Questions? Masculinity as Basis for Genocide German ideology
Ultimate goals: preserving German honor and acquiring land
Conceptions of power and control
Total elimination and destruction of indigenous peoples
Role of Women Masculinity Justified the Genocide Dehumanization of the enemy
Hereros = an inferior breed that deserved their fate ("baboons")
"Savage enemy that needed to be crushed"
Medical experimentation Masculinity Shaped the Tactics Emphasis on "hard" over "soft" power
General Leutwein = too "soft" and "feminine"
General von Trotha = "hard" "strong" and "masculine"
Connection to German honor Masculinity Shaped the Tactics International power dynamics
First war fought in limelight
Scramble for Africa
Acquiring more colonies Masculinity Shaped the Tactics Inability to deal with Herero rebellions
Avenge German deaths
Political and instrumental implications Gendered violence
Rape
Taking no prisoners
Mutilations Masculinity Influenced Conduct Bridgman, Jon M. The Revolt of the Hereros. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981.
Daniels, Clement. (2003). The Struggle for Indigenous People’s Rights. In H. Melber, Re-examining Liberation in Namibia: Political Culture Since Independence. Stockholm: Elanders Gotab.
Dedering, Tilman. “The German-Herero War of 1904: Revisionism of Genocide or Imaginary Histography?” Journal of Southern African Studies 19.1 (1993): 80-87.
Genocide and the Second Reich. Dir. David Olusoga. BBC, 2005. Film.
Hillebrecht, Werner. “‘Certain Uncertainties’ or Venturing Progressively into Colonial Apologetics?” Journal of Namibian Studies 1.7 (2003): 73-95.
Kossler, Reinhart. (2003). Public Memory, Reconciliation, and the Afermath of War: A Preliminary Framework with Special Reference to Namibia. In H. Melber, Re-examining Liberation in Namibia: Political Culture Since Independence. Stockholm: Elanders Gotab.
Krause, Robin (2012). Opposition in the Colony and the Metropolis: Its Expression, Repression, and Impact During the Herero and Nama Genocide, 1904-1907. Masters Thesis. Clark University: USA.
Mamdani, Mahmood. When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 2001.
Melber, Henning. (2003). Limits to Liberation: An Introduction to Namibia’s Postcolonial Political Culture. In H. Melber, Re-examining Liberation in Namibia: Political Culture Since Independence. Stockholm: Elanders Gotab.
Pisani, Andre du. (2003). Liberation and Tolerance. In H. Melber, Re-examining Liberation in Namibia: Political Culture Since Independence. Stockholm: Elanders Gotab.
Sarkin, Jeremy. Colonial Genocide and Reparations Claims in the 21st Century: The Socio-Legal Context of Claims under International Law by the Herero against Germany for Genocide in Namibia, 1904-1908. New York: Praeger, 2008.
Sarkin, Jeremy. Germany’s Genocide of the Herero: Kaiser Wilhelm II, His General, His Settlers, His Soldiers. Cape Town: University of Cape Town Press, 2011.
Saul, John S. and Colin Leys. (2003). Truth, Reconciliation, Amnesia: The “ex-Detainees” Fight for Justice. In H. Melber, Re-examining Liberation in Namibia: Political Culture Since Independence. Stockholm: Elanders Gotab.
Steinmetz, George. “From ‘Native Policy’ to Exterminationism: German Southwest Africa, 1904, in Comparative Perspective.” University of Namibia, Windhoek Campus, Namibia. August 2004.
Totten, Samuel and Robert K. Hitchcock. Genocide of Indigenous Peoples. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 2011.
Vail, Leroy. The Creation of Tribalism in Southern Africa. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989. by Emily Newton
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