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Transcript of Medieval Time-line
By Ranah Ahmad! Saint Augustine, Bishop
( 396-400 )
He was named the Christian bishop of Hippo (Annaba, Algeria) in 396, and devoted the remaining decades of his life to the formation of an ascetic religious community. Augustine argued against the skeptics that genuine human knowledge can be established with certainty. His explanation of human nature and agency combined stoic and Christian elements. But it was by reference to the abstract philosophy of Plato that Augustine sought to prove the existence of god. Acknowledging the difficulties of divine control and foreknowledge, he used an analysis of the nature of time to defend human freedom in De Gratia et Libero Aribitrio (On Grace and Free Will).
Attila, King of the Huns
( 434-453 )
Attila the Hun was the Emperor of the Huns from 434 until his death in 453. He was leader of the Hunnic Empire which stretched from Germany to the Ural River and from the River Danube to the Baltic Sea. During his rule, he was one of the most fearsome of the Western and Eastern Roman Empires' enemies: he invaded the Balkans twice and marched through Gaul (modern France) as far as Orleans before being defeated at the Battle of Chalons. He refrained from attacking either Constantinople or Rome. His story, that the Sword of Attila had come to his hand by miraculous means, was reported by the Roman Priscus. In much of Western Europe, he is remembered as the epitome of cruelty and rapacity. However he is regarded as a hero and his name is revered and used in Hungary, Turkey and other Turkic-speaking countries in Central Asia. Some histories and chronicles describe him as a great and noble king. The Huns
( 455-475 ) The event which, more than any other, presaged the fall of the Roman Empire was the arrival of a group of the Huns in Eastern Europe, forcing many Germanic peoples to migrate southwards and westwards and setting off a chain reaction which could only end with the inundation of the Empire itself. Those are the cold, historical facts. To the people of the time, however, these newcomers were to set new standards for savagery and terror. They became known, even to their barbarian enemies, as the 'Scourge of God'. To the Romans, they seemed the embodiment of Anti-Christ, and to herald the coming of the Apocalypse. Odoacer, 1st Barbarian King
First barbarian king of Italy (476 – 493). A German warrior in the Roman army, he led a revolt against the usurper Orestes (475). He was proclaimed king by his troops in 476, the date that traditionally marks the end of the Western Roman Empire. Odoacer paid homage to the Eastern emperor, Zeno, but asserted his own right to rule Italy. He conquered Dalmatia (482), defeated the Rugi (487–-488), and retook Sicily from the Vandals. By attacking the Eastern Empire, he alienated Zeno, who encouraged the Ostrogothic king Theodoric to invade Italy (489). Theodoric captured almost the entire peninsula and killed Odoacer after inviting him to a banquet. Saint Patrick was a Romano-Briton and Christian missionary, who is the most generally recognised patron saint of Ireland (although Brigid of Kildare and Columba are also formally patron saints). Two authentic letters from him survive, from which come the only universally accepted details of his life. When he was about 14 he was captured from Britain by Irish raiders and taken as a slave to Ireland, where he lived for six years before escaping and returning to his family. After entering the Church, he returned to Ireland as an ordained bishop in the north and west of the island, but little is known about the places where he worked and there is no contemporary evidence for any link between Patrick and any known church building.
By the eighth century he had come to be revered as the patron saint of Ireland. The Irish monastery system evolved after the time of Patrick and the Irish church did not develop the diocesan model that Patrick and the other early missionaries had tried to establish.
Saint Patrick's Day (17 March) is celebrated both in and outside of Ireland, as both a liturgical and non-liturgical holiday. In the dioceses of Ireland it is a both a solemnity and a holy day of obligation and outside of Ireland, it can be a celebration of Ireland itself. Saint Patrick, Patron
(500-512) MY TIMELINE! 1066 - Harold II is crowned king the day after Edward the Confessor dies. Tostig and Harold Hardraada of Norway invade England: Harold defeats them at the Battle of Stamford Bridge, killing both; Battle of Hastings: 19 days after battle of Stamford Bridge, William of Normandy lands at Pevensey, defeats and kills Harold; William I, the Conqueror, first Norman King of England (to 1087)
1067 - Work is begun on building the Tower of London.
1068 - The Norman Conquest continues until 1069: William subdues the north of England (the "Harrying of the North" ): the region is laid waste
1070 - Hereward the Wake begins a Saxon revolt in the Fens of eastern England; Lanfranc, an Italian lawyer, becomes William's formidable Archbishop of Canterbury. Lanfranc rebuilds Canterbury Cathedral and establishes the primacy of the see of Canterbury over York, but does not enforce clerical celibacy.
1072 - William invades Scotland, and also receives the submission of Hereward
1080 - William, in a letter, reminds the bishop of Rome that the King of England owes him no allegiance.
1086 - Domesday Book is completed in England
1087 - William II, Rufus, King of England (to 1100); his elder brother, Robert, is Duke of Normandy
1093 - Donald Bane, King of Scots (to 1097), following the death of his brother, Malcolm III, in battle against the English
1097 - Edgar, second son of Malcolm Canmore, King of Scotland (to 1107); he defeats Donald Bane with the assistance of William II of England
1099 - Crusaders capture Jerusalem; Godfrey of Bouillon is elected King of Jerusalem
1100 - Henry I, youngest son of William the Conqueror, King of England (to 1135), following assassination of William Rufus
1106 - Henry I defeats his brother Rober, Duke of Normandy, at battle of Tinchebrai: Robert remains captive for life
1113 - Founding of the Order of St. John is formally acknowledged by the papacy
1114 - Matilda (Maud), daughter of Henry I of England marries Emperor Henry V
1118 - Hugues de Payens founds the order of Knights of Templars
1120 - William, heir of Henry I of England, is drowned in wreck of the "White Ship"
1129 - Empress Matilda, widow of Henry V, marries Geoffrey the Handsome, Count of Anjou, nicknamed " Plantagenet "
1139 - Matilda lands in England
1141 - Matilda captures Stephen at the battle of Lincoln, and reigns disastrously as queen; she is driven out by a popular rising and Stephen restored
1148 - Matilda leaves England for the last time
1152 - Marriage of Louis VII of France and Eleanor of Aquitaine is annulled on grounds of blood relationship; Eleanor marries Henry of Anjou, allying Aquitaine to his lands of Anjou and Normandy, two months after her divorce
1153 - Henry of Anjou, son of Matilda, invades England and forces Stephen to make him heir to the English throne
1154 - Henry II, King of England (to 1189); he also rules more than half of France; Pope Adrian IV (to 1159) (Nicholas Breakspear, the only English pope)
1155 - Henry II appoints the Archdeacon of Canterbury, Thomas a Becket, as Chancellor
1159 - Henry II levies scutage, payment in cash instead of military service
1162 - Becket is appointed Archbishop of Canterbury and at once quarrels with Henry II over the Church's rights
1164 - Constitutions of Clarendon; restatement of laws governing trial of ecclesiastics in England; Becket is forced to flee to France
1170 - Becket is reconciled with Henry II, returns to Canterbury; is murdered by four knights after Henry's hasty words against him
1173 - Rebellion of Henry's eldest sons, Henry, Richard, and Geoffrey, supported by their mother, Eleanor of Aquitaine; Thomas a Becket canonized
1189 - Richard I, Coeur de Lion, eldest surviving son of Henry II, King of England (to 1199)
1191 - The bodies of King Arthur and Guinevere were reported to have been exhumed from a grave at Glastonbury Abbey; Richard I conquers Cyprus and captures the city of Acre
1192 - Richard I captures Jaffa, makes peace with Saladin; on the way home he is captured by his enemy, Duke Leopold of Austria
1193 - Leopold hands Richard over to Emperor Henry VI, who demands ransom
1194 - Richard is ransomed and returned to England
1199 - John Lackland, youngest son of Henry II, King of England (to 1216)
1203 - John of England orders the murder of his nephew Arthur, Duke of Brittany
1207 - Pope Innocent III appoints Stephen Langton Archbishop of Canterbury (Langton is the man who divided the books of the Bible into chapters); John refuses to let him take office
1208 - Innocent III lays England under interdict
1209 - Cambridge University is founded in England; Innocent III excommunicates John for attacks on Church property
1213 - Innocent III declares John deposed; John resigns his kingship to the pope and receives it back as a holding from the Roman legate, thereby ending the interdict.
1215 - Signing of Magna Carta; English barons force John to agree to a statement of their rights
1216 - Henry III becomes king of England at age nine (to 1272)
1227 - Henry III begins personal rule in England
1256 - Prince Llewellyn sweeps English from Wales
1264 - Simon de Montfort and other English barons defeat Henry III at battle of Lewes
1265 - De Montfort's Parliament: burgesses from major towns summoned to Parliament for the first time; Henry III's son Edward defeats and kills Simon de Montfort at battle of Evesham
1269 - Rebuilding of Westminster Abbey begun by Henry III.
1272 - Edward I, King of England (to 1307)
1283 - Edward I defeats and kills Llewellyn, Prince of Wales, and executes Llewellyn's brother David; conquest of Wales complete
1290 - Edward I expells all Jews from England
1291 - Scots acknowledge Edward I of England as suzerain; he arbitrates in succession dispute
1295 - Model Parliament of Edward I : knights and burgesses from English shires and towns summoned. First representative parliament
1296 - Edward I of England deposes John Balliol from Scottish throne
1297 - Battle of Cambuskenneth: Scottish patriot William Wallace defeats English army
1298 - Edward I defeats Wallace at battle of Falkirk and reconquers Scotland
1301 - Edward I of England invests his baby son Edward as Prince of Wales
1305 - The English capture and execute William Wallace
1306 - New Scottish rebellion against English rule led by Robert Bruce. Robert I, the Bruce crowned King of Scotland (to 1329) at Scone
1307 - Edward I dies on march north to crush Robert Bruce. Edward II, King of England (to 1327)
1310 - English barons appoint 21 peers, the Lords Ordainers, to manage Edward II's household
1312 - Order of Knights Templar abolished
1314 - Battle of Bannockburn: Robert Bruce defeats Edward II and makes Scotland independent
1326 - Queen Isabella and Roger Mortimer sail from France with an army to rebel against Edward II of England
1327 - Parliament declares Edward II deposed, and his son accedes to the throne as Edward III. Edward II is hideously murdered, nine months later
1328 - Charles IV dies, ending the Capetian dynasty. Philip of Valois succeeds him as Philip VI.
1329 - Edward III of England does simple homage for Aquitaine (Guienne), but refuses to do liege homage.
1333 - Edward III invades Scotland on Balliol's behalf and defeats the Scots at battle of Halidon Hill
1336 - Edward places an embargo on English exports of wool to Flanders.
1337 - Philip declares Edward's fiefs forfeit and begins harassing the frontiers of Aquitaine; Edward III, provoked by these attacks on his territories in France, declares himself king of France; "The Hundred Years' War " begins (ends 1453)
1338 - Treaty of Koblenz: alliance between England and the Holy Roman Empire; Edward III formally claims the French crown.
1340 - Naval victory at Sluys gives England the command of the English Channel; English Parliament passes four statues providing that taxation shall be imposed only by Parliament
1346 - Edward III of England invades France with a large army and defeats an even bigger army under Philip VI at the Battle of Crécy
1347 - The English capture Calais
1348 - Edward III establishes the Order of the Garter. The black plague swept through England and Europe. Hence it the proper term for "Black Death". It was estimated that one out of every five people in England died. Spread by fleas which infested a huge rat population, the disease is characterized by the victim turning dark purple in the last hours of life due to respiratory failure of the black plague. It was very sad!
1351 - The English remove the Pope's power to give English benefices to foreigners
1353 - Statue of Praemunire: English Parliament forbids appeals to Pope
1356 - Edward the Black Prince, son of Edward III, defeats the French at the battle of Poitiers, capturing King John II
1358 - The Jacquerie
1360 - Peace of Bretigny ends the first stage of the Hundred Years' War. Edward III gives up claim to French throne
1369 - Second stage of war between England and France begins
1370 - French troops commanded by Bertrand du Guesclin; Edward, the Black Prince, sacks Limoges
1372 - French troops recapture Poitou and Brittany; Naval battle of La Rochelle: French regain control of English Channel
1373 - John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, son of Edward III, leads new English invasion of France 520 St. Benedict established the first monastery at Monte Cassino, Italy. He drew up a set of rules for the monks, which included vows of obedience, poverty and manual labor.
800 Charlemagne was crowned ruler of the Holy Roman Empire. This act symbolized a union of church and state. Thank You for watching...! :)