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music history

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on 1 November 2012

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Transcript of music history

Jazz Not always musically challenging
Swing rhythms
Usually strophic in form
The chorus followed either the 12 or 32-bar song form (AABA)
First Chorus = introduce the melody
Development = improvised solos, written soli sections, short choruses Formed a nonet and Capitol Records recorded the group in 1949 and 1950
These recordings were compiled as Birth of the Cool (1957)
He believed that through playing with a lighter sound was more expressive
Major Recording: Birth of the Cool (by Miles Davis) Was considered a “supreme musical genius of bop”
Realized that the twelve tones within the chromatic scale could lead into any key melodically, so he uses this concept in his jazz solos against the norm
Enjoys playing in faster tempos and duple/quadruple time unlike traditional jazz BB King
One of the greatest guitarists of all time
First Recording was in 1949 “Miss Martha King”, which didn't chart well
In the 1950's, King became a huge R&B artist
Also in 1956 he founded his own record label, Blues Boys Kingdom
Music Example: The Thrill is Gone(1969) The Blues [1900- Present] 12 bar blues form: I, I, IV, I, V, IV, I
16 bar blues also exist, such as in Herbie Hancock's “Watermelon Man”
Originated in the American South from African-American spiritual work songs
Call and response work songs sung to pass the time in cotton fields Recorded with many other renowned Blues Artists including Louis Armstrong
Considered to be one of the finest recordings of the 1920’s
12 bar blues accompanied by Harmonium and Trumpet
Featured in a short film starring Bessie Smith Notable Musicians Bessie Smith
The greatest of the classical blues period
Started as a street musician in Chattanooga
In 1923 she recorded her first records, "Gulf Coast Blues" and "Down-Hearted Blues" with pianist Clarence Williams St. Louis Blues by Bessie Smith A mixture of African and European music
Originated in the late 19th century and early 20th century in black communities (Southern U.S.) one of the earliest jazz forms that combined early brass band marches,
ragtime, blues and polyphonic improvisation
one instrument (often trumpet) plays the melody while other instruments (from the 'frontline') improvise around that melody, creating a polyphonic sound
flexible instrumentation and band size
standard band consists of: 'front line' (trumpet, cornet and clarinet) and a 'rhythm section' (piano, drums, guitar, etc) Dixieland [1900-1920] Notable Musicians Jazz trumpeter from New Orleans, Louisiana
Shifted the focus from collective improvisation to solo performance Also known as "Early Jazz" or "Hot Jazz"
Developed in the New Orleans that spread to Chicago and New York City
Dixieland is the name given to the Jazz style performed by early New Orleans Jazz Musicians
Well known jazz standards "Basin Street Blues" and "When the Saints Go Marching" Musical Style Big Band Swing [1932-1942] Began in the 1920s and flourished in the 30s due to big bands
shuffle rhythm = tripelet subdivisions of the beat

Different styles of swing depending on the bandleader/lead arranger
Duke Ellington- varied and sophisticated
Bob Crosby- Dixieland swing
Count Basie- relaxed swing
Benny Goodman- hard driving swing
Big bands became a dominating force in jazz at this time
Resulted in an influx of musicians emerging from these bands to play in clubs Swing Occurred at the time of the Depression
Served as an escape for people from the after-war effects Rhythm, brass, and woodwinds = 12-25 musicians
Typical set up of 17-piece instrumentation
5 saxophones/ 4 trumpets/ 4 trombones/ 4-piece rhythm section; many variations in size of band Instrumentation: Musical Elements Notable Musicians Began his career in New Orleans as a piano player
Known as the first jazz arranger that incorporated improvisations
"Jelly Roll Blues-(1915)" was the first published jazz composition Jelly Roll Morton Bebop [1940-1950] Notable Musicians One of the greatest jazz trumpeters of all time
He was the one that popularized and developed bebop with Charlie parker
Wrote compositions that would completely different both harmonically and rhythmically, as well as melodically In 1939 he made his first recording of “Body and Soul” which turned out to be an important turning point of existing jazz going into bebop
He tends to stray from normal resolutions and time signatures, bringing more freedom and breaking out of the boundaries of the ‘normal’ jazz
He became an inspiration for the newer generation of jazz musicians
Music Example: Body and Soul "Tense" music- fast in tempo to show off performer's virtuosity and improvisation
Musicians explored unconventional harmonies, melodies and rhythm in jazz
Utilize full range and extent of instruments
It was unpopular and unaccepted in the beginning One of Dizzy’s signature pieces which he also played with his small groups
It became a Jazz standard; a repertoire that is widely known and performed
A notable fact on this piece is that there is a non-walking bass
This piece has unresolved chords (e.g. B section an unresolved minor chord (II-V)) A Night in Tunisia by Dizzy Gillespie Autumn Leaves Cool Jazz [1949-1955] Jazz musicians moved jazz closer to classical music
More focus on arrangement and composition than complex improvised solos
Focused on more calm, subdued, soft, lighter sounds unlike bebop
Cool players played with little to no vibrato and used middle registers of their instrument
Simple harmonies and drove towards tonic of the key rather than complex chord progressions Notable Musician Fusion [1960-Present] Notable Musicians Various forms and styles of music blended with jazz to create unique sounds
Very open form of jazz; many potential sounds can be created in this period
Considered as “music for musicians” due to the complex rhythms and melodies
Sounds become more “electric” in the 1980’s (e.g. Synthesizers, Keytars ...etc) Known for his talent in piano and ability to weave different forms of music together
Formed the band Return to Forever which is one of the most significant moments of the jazz rock fusion period
Influences of different styles such as Rock, Electric and Latin grooves in his music
Music Example: Crystal Silence Quintet from the 1970’s
Formed on partnership of Wayne Shorter (saxophone) and Joe Zawinul (keyboards)
Notable use of synthesizers that form the texture of Jazz-Electric fusion
Used African/Middle Eastern Rhythms with complicated electric piano melodies
Music Example: Mysterious Traveller Originally a 1945 French song entitled "Les feuilles mortes" with music by Joseph Kosma, French lyrics by Jacques Prévert, and English lyrics by Johnny Mercer Coleman Hawkins Charlie Parker Dizzy Gillespie Miles Davis Chick Corea Weather Report Louis Armstrong Benny Goodman Jazz   [jaz]

1. Music originating in New Orleans around the beginning of the 20th century and subsequently developing through various increasingly complex styles, generally marked by intricate, propulsive rhythms, polyphonic ensemble playing, improvisatory, virtuosic solos, melodic freedom, and a harmonic idiom ranging from simple diatonicism through chromaticism to atonality.

2. Style of dance music, popular especially in the 1920s, arranged for a large band and marked by some of the features of jazz. Music that allows musicians to have their own unique style of music
The opportunity to freely express yourself and improviseNever the exact same solo twice
Improvised structure
Music for the soul Jazz band from the New Orleans that made first jazz recordings in 1917
First band to have commercial records and hit recordings
Music Example: Livery Stable Blues
Experiments with instruments to imitate barnyard sounds
Music Example: Tiger Rag
Most recorded jazz composition Original Dixieland Jass Band A virtuoso clarinet player and orchestra leader
At 16, he was hired by the Ben Pollack band and soon became a featured soloist
Led his first band in 1934 that gained popularity after securing a weekly position on an NBC radio show
Became the first Jazz band leader to perform at Carnegie Hall in New York City in 1938
Climactic piece of the show was “Sing Sing Sing” "When the Saints Go Marching In" "Basin Street Blues" Count Basie Was a pianist, organist, band leader and composer
Started on burlesque and vaudeville circuits
Formed his own band in 1935 and led them for nearly 50 years
Theme Song: “One O’Clock Jump”
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