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Logical Fallacies

IB English III
by

Elizabeth Russell

on 16 May 2013

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Transcript of Logical Fallacies

By: Ureshantie Singh
and
Elizabeth Russell Logical Fallacies Ad Hominem Fallacy Appeal To Emotion Burden of Proof Fallacy False Cause Fallacy Loaded Question Fallacy This picture is an example of Ad Hominem because the first goose is providing some evidence that they are related to the duck specie, while the other goose is attacking the first goose's intellect instead of the presented argument. This picture appeals to the emotions of a family. A grandmother or grandfather looking at this picture may feel heart-wrenched and the polar bear will never be able to live the life that its parents did. The comparison of the baby polar bear and grandchildren gives the people sitting on their couches something to relate the polar bear's life to. Comparing how the baby polar bear won't have a fun life to a kid that won't be able to enjoy the outdoors. This picture is an example of burden of proof because the person on the left stated a claim and the person on the right wants to see Romney disprove the statement. The two men do not have to disclaim the statements, the person that the statement is about has to prove the invalidity (or validity) of the statement. This picture goes hand-in-hand with the false cause fallacy because just because the cat can fit into the bowl and have the same volume, it does not qualify the cat being a liquid substance. You can tell the cat is a solid. The only reason a cat can fit inside of the bowl is because the cat's skeleton structure, that does not consist of a collar bone, allows the cat to fit into small places because of the greater range of motion in their shoulders. Their vertebrae are more flexible so they can twist and turn in positions that are impossible for humans without causing us pain. Personal Incredulity Fallacy If the man were to say his date was not sensitive at all, the woman would probably beat him with the closest solid object. This cartoon demonstrates a loaded question because no matter what the guy says the woman would get upset. The sign shows the Personal Incredulity Fallacy because a group of people may not understand the thought process of an individual, but that does not mean that they are wrong and Satan will cause them to burn for eternity. Everyone has a right to their own opinions. Slippery
Slope Fallacy This cartoon displays the slippery slope fallacy because the authority figure with the weird hair that if he "doesn't reject proposals" then he will "get fired" and eventually die., therefore he must continue to reject proposals. Strawman Fallacy Tu Quoque Fallacy This message is an example of the Strawman Fallacy. It fabricated the entirety of a liberal's decision without their input. It is saying that a conservationist think that all liberals think abstinent people are frigid and only conservationist are accepting to virgins. The person is setting up a basis for an argument without taking in an account of the other side of the said argument. This picture illustrates the Tu Quoque Fallacy because the Bubble Guy is criticizing the woman for smoking, the Bubble Lady retaliates by criticizing the man for drinking. Ambiguity Fallacy The picture next to it also has a double meaning. It could either be a man playing a saxophone or a woman with half her face in the shadow. Bandwagon Fallacies Appeal to Authority Fallacy This picture illustrates the appeal to authority fallacy because it has Uncle Sam encouraging the people of America to fight for their country. He is in an authoritative position of influencing the people to do as he says. Composition/Division Fallacy This cartoon represents the composition fallacy because Charlie Brown states that the little violence between kids is going to lead to violence when they are adults. Their minor conflicts are not going to be the cause of the ruin of the world, he just linked that part of violence to the entire world in an attempt to prevent the girl from hitting him. This ad shows the bandwagon fallacy because it pretty much states 'this super model wears Maybelline and looks pretty, so if I wear Maybelline I will look pretty also.' Just because the model looks pretty with that make-up, doesn't mean another person will look pretty with that make-up. Appeals to Nature Fallacy This picture goes hand-in-hand with the appeals to nature fallacy because it is saying that just because the cigarettes are grown using "earth-friendly" and "organic" products, that they are good for the environment and unaddictive. That is not true because the smoke produced by the cigarettes adds to the pollution in the air and any kind of tobacco has addicting side effects, but according to this advertisement the organic growing products of the tobacco makes it superb. Genetic Fallacy This cartoon shows the genetic fallacy because the man thinks that just because the woman scientist has information it is wrong because she is a woman. He is implying that she is stupid because of her genetic make-up, not because of her information. Middle Ground Fallacy This represents the middle ground fallacy because the writing on the house says "four legs good, two legs bad" and the pig is writing "three legs ok" which is the common ground of the statements. Two legs are bad and four legs are good so the pig was saying that three legs are okay for them. Anecdotal Fallacy This represents the anecdotal fallacy because the dog is insisting that Fungo doesn't smoke just because he has never seen him in the act personally. Satchel's argument is based on his personal experience, while Rob's argument is based on visual proof. Rob still takes Satchel's argument into consideration even though it is not valid. Mutually Exclusive Fallacy This cartoon is an example of the mutually exclusive fallacy because it shows one way that humans have become how they are now, it does not show the other theories as to how we, as humans, have became the way that we are. There are more possibilities than the one that is presented. This captioned picture represents the no true Scotsman fallacy because it is implying that the individual that kills others is not associated with the group of atheists because of the unpleasant act of killing people by asserting that no true atheist would do such a thing due to their ethics. Kienzle, Stephanie. "VotersOpinion.com." VotersOpinion.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Oct. 2012. <http://www.votersopinion.com>.
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