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# Waves for beginners

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## chandra p

on 12 November 2013

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#### Transcript of Waves for beginners

Waves for beginners
What are waves?
Kinds of waves
Mechanical waves can only travel through a medium.
Types of waves

Parts of a wave
(transverse)

In context to our product (phone antenna)
By Chandra, Sam K, and Shane
Point A
to...
Point B
An example is a sound wave, because it has to bounce off barriers and mediums as vibrations to get to your ear, which we interpret as sound.
Electromagnetic waves can travel through outer space (a vacuum), but can still travel through a medium
(P.S. they are all part of the electromagnetic spectrum).
An example would be light, because you can shine a light in outer space.
There are 3 types of waves
Transverse waves are when the particles of the medium get displaced perpendicular to the direction of the traveling energy.
particle displacement (way the particles move)
direction of wave
By Chandra, Sam K, and Shane
Energy is the capacity for vigorous activity
A medium is something that a wave or energy can travel through, for example, a medium for moving energy is water, because it travels in the form of water waves.
Longitudinal waves are when the particles of the medium are displaced parallel to the direction of the wave.
particle displacement
direction of wave
If you were to see this moving, this would look like water waves rising and pulling back from the shore, in the top view.
Surface waves are when the particles of the medium move in a circular motion.
particle displacement
direction of wave
If you were to see everything moving, the particles would be moving in a circular motion, while the actual wave is moving in one straight direction.
wavelength
crest
trough
equilibrium
(rest position)
amplitude

frequency
A barrier is something that absorbs, reflects, refracts or diffracts a wave.
Parts of a wave
(longitudinal)
A vacuum is a space with no matter
An example of a longitudinal wave is a sound wave, because as it travels farther and farther, its pressure starts to go down more and more (rarefaction). But if you get closer and closer to the sound, the pressure goes up more and more (compression).
Frequency is the number of times a certain point passes by in one unit of time e.g. hertz is the number of cycles/second.
Wavelength is the length between each repeating point of a wave, like from crest to crest.
The crest is the topmost part of a wave.
The amplitude is the length from the crest to the rest position, therefore, if the amplitude is really high, so is the amount of energy needed to produce the wave.
The trough is the bottommost part of a wave.
Electromagnetic spectrum
The waves in the electromagnetic spectrum are the only kinds of waves that can travel through space. As the wavelength decreases, the frequency and the amount of radiation/number of barriers it can pass through increases.
Our device is a phone case with a WiFi chip, which enhances the range and frequency of the signal, so you get more data from farther away in a unit of time. Some of its functions are based on a WiFi connection.
WiFi is a facility that allows computers to connect to the internet/communicate with someone wireless-ly, or a physical Ethernet connection.
The equilibrium is when the position of the wave is at rest, and when the wave has an undefined/no frequency and/or wavelength.
How WiFi works
At the beginning, the information from the computer is sent to a router as radio waves, which is then decoded by the router. Then the information is put on the internet, or the other user receives what you said/replied. This is also the the way a two way radio works, except it is all or mostly radio waves.
Waves are what transport energy from...
Absorption
When a wave hits a barrier with the same vibration power (resonance) and frequency, and it gets absorbed by the barrier. But it doesn't go on to the next barrier or medium, because it used up all its energy, or the amplitude dampened to nothing. An example of absorption would be the cochlea in your ear. Because our device uses mostly radio waves any metal that can conduct electricity can adsorbed radio waves. The material can be a mesh with openings, as long as the openings are smaller than the wavelength of the signal being blocked.
Diffraction
Diffraction is when a wave goes through a slit and spreads out and it keeps the same amplitude, wavelength and frequency. A great example is a pinhole camera:

Refraction
Refraction is when a wave moves from one medium to another, and then is deflected (bended). The amount that is deflected can also be related to the densities of the different mediums. For our device its radio waves tend to refract when they the atmosphere, they refract off into space.
Reflection
Reflection is when a wave bounces off a surface, at the same angle it came in, but in the opposite direction. The direction the bounces off is also based on the reflective surface's direction. An obvious example would be a mirror, or a reflective surface. Reflective surfaces are useful for radio waves, because of the antennae:
Other receiving phone

antenna

Phone case with chip inside

chip
circuits

batteries

Diagram of device's wave movement

Digital
Analog
think of a dial, you can turn it left and right and everyone in between.analog is a form of data that is less accurate than digital but it has more info stored for example it has 0-1 and every in between.
Digital information that doesn't have any values between the given values. For example, a set of numbers is digital information, because you are not stating that there is information between the numbers. Another example would be a discrete graph which is shown here:
Analog and digital signals in our device
What kinds of signals do our device transmit and receive: analog and digital
What are the analog signals: radio and Wifi waves
Why: Because you can transmit and receive digital representations of different frequencies and wavelengths e.g. different frequencies cause the quality on the receiving end on the phone.
What are the digital signals: electrical waves
Why: Because you can transmit/receive the radio signals transformed into electrical signals, or you can't. There is no quality of the electrical signal received. For example, when there is no connection there is no signal

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