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AS Product Study

Explanation of AS Product Study Portfolio

Anand Mistry

on 9 December 2014

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Transcript of AS Product Study

AS Product Study
Picking a Product
Picking the correct product is Vital for a successful product. You want to choose a product that you can IMPROVE to make it work better or more efficient

Think of a everyday product that you may have used and thought that if it had X, Y or Z it would be such a better product.
Product Review (Task 1)
Individually study a product in minute detail

Trying to identify areas of weakness

So the product can be improved
Start by identifying the design aspects
Quality, Comfort, Ease of use, choice of material, function, aesthetics
Must be considered when making a judgement
Give each aspect a mark out of 10
Anything less than 8/10 is open to improvement
Rank order can be used to prioritise the improvements
What to improve?
Choose an everyday object
Copy and paste an image of it from the Internet into the centre of a PowerPoint slide
Identify as many design aspects as possible.
Then decide if each aspect can be improved further awarding a mark out of ten for each with a brief description. (as per the guitar example)
Whilst you work on that I will discuss your Product Study Choice with each of you!
Slide 2. Choose another product, one that you think cannot be improved at all. Name the product and explain why you consider it impossible to improve.

Save a copy of your file as “Your name Product Review” in the coursework folder on the DT drive.


Folder Pg 1 - Product Introduction
Fully explain your chosen product Must include the following sections.

1. The Product

2. Intended Purpose of the product

3. How to use the product

4. Consumer Needs

5. Manufacturing Needs
Explain FULLY what the product is and describe ALL of its features.
Size / Material / Cost / Ergonomics / Where you get it / Environment / Manufacturing etc..
With the use of Photos explain FULLY the PURPOSE of the product. Imagine what would be written in the original Specification.
With the use of PHOTOS and VIDEOS
FULLY explain in steps how you use
the product. (VIDEO = High marks)
Page 1
The CONSUMER is who buys the product.

Try thinking about that the CONSUMER wants from this product.

Think about possible original specifications points to help you.

Start with the a HIGHLIGHTED point and then they need to be FULLY explained
Manufacturing Needs relates to;

1. Time Scale
2. Components
3. Assembly
4. Materials / Material Needs
5. Scales of
6. Transportation
7. Function
8. Reliability
9. Brand Name
10.Economic Viability
Hints for Top Marks
1. Must FULLY explain in detail all
aspects of the product.

2. Highlight any key words

3. Use photos and Videos as EVIDENCE

4. Use proper TERMINOLOGY and Full sentences
Photos and Videos are VITAL FOR A HIGH MARK
Page 2
Key Criteria Used in its Design
Criteria to use








Photo Evidence
What is the KEY FUNCTION of the product.
What is its USP and Key Features
What is the product made from? Specific's
Why is it made from that material?
Manufacturing capabilities of that material
Durability / Reliability / Maintenance
Speed of Manufacturing
Scale of Manufacturing
Standardised Components
Reduce / Cost
Numbers of Components
QC and QA
Ease of Use (Key Features that might help)
Anthropometric's (Size)
Use in relation to its environment
Maintenance / Safety
Six R's
Standardised Components
Suitability of Function
Its intended Environment
Function Vs Form
Appeal to target market / users
Economic Viability
Manufacturing Costs / Recycling / Disposal
Materials Costs
Transportation Costs
Advertising Costs
Scales of Production Costs
Cost in relations to Existing products
Safety in use / disposal / repair
Electronic Components
Removal Components
Weight (Could this be an issues?)
Safety to Target Market
Photo evidence of all key points is vital for a high mark. Use arrows and blown up sections to show specific detail
Highlight Key Words
Page 3
Analysing the Strengths and Weaknesses of the Product
Page 3
Strengths and Weaknesses
Using the Headings below with Photo evidence discuss the S & W of the product

The Weaknesses will be the
things you will develop later in
the project. Its vital these are explained in detail.
Highlight key Words
Page 4
Comparing the Product with Other Similar Products
Using the topics;

Function / Materials / Manufacturing
Ergonomics / Aesthetics / Cost

Compare the product to your ORIGINAL PRODUCT

Use a VISUAL KEY to highlight if that product is worst / better / same

A detailed OVERALL CONCLUSION is needed for a high grade

Highlight Key word
Page 5
Identifying & Analysing certain Moral Implications
3 Key areas to identify
3 Main Areas to look at

1. Environmental Issues
2. Social Issues
3. Economic Issues
What do each of these phrases mean?
Environmental Issues
Environmental responsibility means ensuring that our actions and lifestyles do not have such a negative impact on the environment that the planet's resources are being used at unsustainable rates e.g. choosing materials and methods which cause as little pollution as possible or reducing our energy usage and developing renewable energy sources so that we reduce our use of fossil fuels
1. Soucing Materials
2. Manufacturing
3. Distribution and Sales
4. Using the product
5. Disposing the Product
Using the Handout given
select 3 of these headings
and DISCUSS how successful or
unsuccessful your chosen product
has addresses these issues.

An LCA could help you put these into

Mining the raw material has an effect on the environment. Using a hardwood such as mahogany can lead to deforestation in countries like South America. Where possible try to use renewable or recycled materials. The number of different materials used is also an issue. Complex products will use materials obtained from all over the globe. Using recycled materials can help but the quality may suffer.
Sourcing Materials
Nearly all manufacturing processes require energy. Where that energy comes from is an issue. Renewable energy sources are preferable (such as energy from wind/solar power) but they are expensive. Often other materials are used during the process. Water is used to cool injection moulding machines sometimes it is recycled, often it is just goes down the drain. Many manufacturing processes produce waste sometimes this waste is recycled sometimes it is disposed with ordinary rubbish into a landfill.
Simply getting the product from the farm or factory to the place it will be used has an environmental impact. What are the environmental impacts of packaging, storage, transport, selling in shops, and getting it to where it will be used? Is it produced locally? Think about the materials used in any packaging, how many layers of packaging are used, the energy used and toxic emissions (pollution) resulting from transport and storage.

Distribution and Sale
Often the greatest environmental impact of a product comes from actually using it. Cars and planes, for example, use more fossil fuels and cause more pollution during their lifetimes than they do when being made. Think about the materials, the energy used and toxic emissions (pollution). Consider whether the product has been designed for long life. Can components be replaced easily? Is the product easy to repair or service?
Using the Product
Too many products are thrown away at the end of their useful lives. They often end up in landfill sites, and can ultimately cause pollution. There are alternatives. After the product has been used, it can sometimes be reused (such as milk bottles that are collected, washed and sterilised, and then reused).
The product can be recycled. For this to be possible, the product has to be designed for disassembly. Waste can be burned and the heat generated used to make electricity. But beware! Effective recycling depends on being able to sort the materials. And recycling is not always the most sustainable option: this will depend on the energy used in recycling and the toxic emissions caused.
Disposing of the Product
Copy &
How this relates to her PRODUCT
Social Issues
Social responsibility means ensuring that other people's quality of life and human rights are not compromised to fulfil our expectations and demands - e.g. buying products and food which has been fairly traded, and manufactured in good conditions.
1. Is the product really needed?
2. appropriateness of Culture
3. Traditional Wisdom and Technologies
4. Cultural Diversity
5. Socialability
6. Opportunities for Future Generations
Using the Handout given
select 3 of these headings
and DISCUSS how successful or
unsuccessful your chosen product
has addresses these issues.
Some products are not really needed. Perhaps we might be better off without them, as making, using and disposing of them at the end of life all contribute to pollution and using up of limited resources. But some products genuinely improve the quality of life for the users. How would you rate this product?
Is the Product Really Needed? Not really = bad. Useful = good
Some products might be good in one society or culture, but not so good in a different one. For example, a solar lantern (a light charged up by sunlight) is good for Kenyan families that have no access to mains electricity but experience strong sunshine. It would not so be appropriate for use in England where we have mains electricity and dull days. At the end of its life, the product might be waste in one country or a reusable or recyclable resource in another. Is the product culturally appropriate for where it will be used?
Appropriateness for the Culture
New products can sweep the market, and in the process traditional ways of doing things are lost, sometimes forever. This makes the world less sustainable. For example, more and more supermarkets sell ready-made meals: will this mean that we lose the skills of home cooking? On the other hand new or improved products can build on ‘the wisdom of the centuries'. A better product is produced, but traditional skills and know-how are not lost. Thinking about the whole life cycle, how would you rate this product?
Traditional wisdom and Technologies
Every culture has its own way of doing things. This is reflected in the clothes we wear, the food we eat, what we like to do in leisure time and so on. In England - a multicultural society - there are many different cultures. There are also cultural differences between generations. For example, teenagers dress differently from their parents, and use text- messaging more on mobile phones. Thinking about the whole life cycle, how far does the product promote cultural diversity?
Cultural Diversity
Humans are social beings. On the whole we like to be with other people (but not all the time) and do things together. Some products encourage this - such as the mobile phone, musical instruments or clubs. Through books we can share the ideas or knowledge of others.
But some products tend to make us more isolated. Thinking about the whole life cycle, how would you rate the product on a sociability scale?
Sociability -Diminishes (bad) Promotes (good)
A successful product will meet the needs of people today. But how far is this done at the expense of future generations? Will it limit their choices?

Opportunities For Future Generations
Every person has a right to basic freedoms - enough to eat, safety, care (especially the young and old), a place to live. These are enshrined in the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights. This includes also the right to education and, for adults, a job, fair pay, and the right to vote and so on. How far does this product support such rights? For example is it fair traded?
Basic Rights And Freedoms
Copy &
How it relates to your PRODUCT
Appropriateness for Culture
Economic Issues
Economic responsibility means ensuring that there is an economic benefit both to the region from which the purchase came and to the region in which it is marketed. Is the process economically fair to everyone involved? Is anyone being exploited? (This is of course also a social issue as well). Can production be done at a price that people can afford?
7.Basic Rights and Freedoms
1. Number of Jobs NOW
2. Number of jobs FUTURE
3. Exploitation
4. Use of resources
5. Sold for a profit
Using the Handout given
select 3 of these headings
and DISCUSS how successful or
unsuccessful your chosen product
has addresses these issues.
Developing, making, using and disposing of a new product will have an impact on jobs. For example, when electricity replaced the gas lamp to light homes and streets many people's jobs disappeared (people who lit the street lamps, gas mantle manufacturers). But new jobs appeared. Many modern products are manufactured by computer controlled systems (CAM), resulting in the loss of jobs for skilled workers in factories. What is the effect of the product on employment? Are the new jobs better or worse than the ones they are replacing? Think about the whole life cycle of the product.
Number of Jobs NOW
Can you ask the same questions (in the box immediately above), but this time thinking about the long-term impact on employment? Again, think about the whole life cycle of the product.
Number of Jobs in the FUTURE
Many products that we buy are manufactured by people who are badly paid and who work in poor conditions. Trade unions can help to get better pay and conditions, but in many places workers are not allowed to join a trade union.
At the other end of the scale there are fair-traded products.
Here everyone involved is properly paid, enjoys safe working conditions and often some of the profits are re- invested in the community, paying for health services, education or training. It is not just production that is important - you need also to consider the impact of spurning materials, transport, use and disposal. How would you rate this product in this context?
Exploitation/Fair Trade
Many products are highly inefficient. Too much material is used. Too much energy or water is used in their manufacture or use. Producing and using them can cause pollution. This all makes the product more expensive.
Good, sustainable design achieves more with less - less materials, energy and toxic emissions.
Thinking about the whole life cycle, how would you rate this product?
Use of resources
A product that sells at less than it costs to make is not sustainable - unless it is subsidised. For example, in some countries the price of basic food is kept down by the state giving money (subsidies) to the manufacturer. Or public transport might be subsidised to keep fares down for passengers. These subsidies are paid from taxes.
Alternatively the product (like a printer for a computer) might be sold at less than cost, but the company makes its profits through selling 'consumables' (ink cartridges). A more sustainable product is one that can be made and sold at a profit to the manufacturer. Does this product rely on subsidies? Does the product give rise to services (e.g. maintenance, or at end of life) that can be run profitably?
Sold for a Profit
Copy &
Explotation / Fair Trade
Page 4
Page 5
Page 6
Design Brief & Specification
Design Brief
A design brief tells us what you are going to design and model. It is important in this section to highlight what you have found out by carrying out your research. Highlight weaknesses in the product which you intend to address.

Needs to be a 3 Part Spec
1. What the problem is
2. A clear vision for how to improve it
3. Who it will be aimed at (Target Audience)
A specification is a list of design requirements. It needs to be a list of must have’s, must do’s and must be’s.
It is the conclusion to the work done so far, giving a reference point for the designing/development of your product and a framework for it’s testing and evaluation later on.
Using the topics

Function / Materials / Manufacture / Moral Issues / Aesthetics / Cost / Safety / Ergonomic - User

Come up with as many SPEC points that are fully JUSTIFIED.

Remember that if you state it here then it MUST be reflected in your ideas

For marks in the top band your specification must include Specific, Measurable, Quantifiable spec points. They must be relevant to your chosen product and only that product. Saying something should be lightweight is too vague a term saying it must be no heavier than 2 kilograms is more specific.

To access the top band of marks you need to have a wide variety of spec points. A list of purely functional spec points is a good start but not good enough for a top grade!

A checklist or series of headings is really helpful and forces you to suggest a wider variety of spec points.The blank folder already has some of these headings in place for you. Prioritizing the relative importance of the spec points could further enhance these points. For example, functional aspects are far more important than a range of fashionable colours.

A Specification with no justification will only ever receive marks in the lower band no matter how good the spec points are.
For full marks you must justify each of your points.

Ask yourself WHY?

Why must it be no heavier than 2 kilograms?
Why should it hold 1 litre of water?
Why should the handle not slip out of the hand whilst in use? Etc.

The justification will often give you an added opportunity to make specific reference to your chosen product
TASK - For Next Lesson

Using the sheet given and the help guides start writing your specification. Think about the key points given in today's lesson and try to cover the most important points first. Ensure you JUSTIFY your points
Page 6
Page 7 Rough Ideas
What makes a good rough idea?
A good rough idea is a quick sketch either 2D or 3D which visually represents your ideas and thoughts.
It uses a variety of thin lines, thick lines and shading to highlight key detail.
Colours or rendering pens can often be used.
Sketch a Day .com
Sketch a Day .com
Page 7
Using the post-it notes provided you have
5 minutes to draw at least 2 ideas of the
chosen idea. Remember 3D if possible.
HW: Choose 1 idea and try to draw it in 3D to the best of your ability. Use A4 or isometric paper if needed.
Page 8 - 15
Page 8
Design Ideas & Development
Hints for Good Ideas and Development
To access the top band of marks you need a good foundation for developing your ideas.

A Good 3D sketch that illustrates all of your idea

Have relevant annotations around the idea to highlight features, materials, construction methods,
Section 1
1. Have a good drawing of your chosen idea

2. Fully Annotate that idea

3. Down the side have 8 Negative points about the idea
Make a Model of your Idea
Hints for a Good Model

1. a model should not take you ages to make. Remember the Innovation Challenge
2. If it has moving parts then model these
3. Think about what MATERIALS will be most suited for your model
4. If you can make it to SCALE then do so
5. Use pre-made / bought parts if needed. (E.G brush ends)
Drawing of Idea
Picture of Model
Use as many pictures as needed to
fully show your design.
you explaining your model.
Detail in your annotations
Development of Idea
Draw the solutions - Model the solutions
Underneath Fully explain the development.
Using GOOGLE SKETCH UP to create an idea
Its important when creating ideas 1 / 2 / 3 that you use GOOGLE SKETCH UP. You can either do this as a whole idea or as sections in all your ideas. keep it simple as google sketch up can be very frustrating.
Further Development
Very easy section.This is a one page of work and you need to take your best idea and DEVELOPE this even further.

STAGE 1. Using A4 / Post it Notes create some very simple further development sketches. For a high mark add annotaions.
Further Development
Stage 2: You need to redraw your FINAL IDEA fully. Adding little smaller drawings showing EACH IMPROVEMENT
You will need at
least 4 improvements
for a top grade.

This can be drawn
or done on CAD
This has to be a very good model this is because you are going to test this model.

This model can also be used for STAGE 2
Current L6th Models
AT LEAST 1 of your products must be PRIMARY for the highest marks
Create a PEER REVIEW of your model
Excellent Drawings
How to do the 2nd Page of a Development Idea
Final Image
against the
Testing / Summary
Testing of Final Model
This page consists of two areas. Testing of the final model and then interviews about the final model
You must carry out at least 3 RELEVANT TESTS of your product. The strengths and weaknesses need to be analysed.
You need to carry out at least 3 interviews with RELEVANT people asking specific questions about your product. Your trying to see if the product has been improved and whether or not it has met your specification
Videos are crucial for high marks
Example of a Relevant Test

Create a movie that demonstrates the main test. You can analysis this on the video but it must also be copied up in terms of good and bad points.
Has used CAD to help explain the strengths of the product. Made reference to the testing video.
Testing Video
Hints for Top Marks
1. Both your interviews and tests must be relevant
2. Use movies wherever possible
3. Each Interview and Test MUST be fully explained and broken down into strengths and weaknesses
4. Use relevant people to interview
Summary of Development / Modeling / Testing
This page involves you explain the process of Development, Modelling and Testing in relation to the re-development of your product.
3 Separate columns

Photo and video evidence

Relate to key words

Highlight conclusions
Describe how the initial idea changed and why it changed. - Re-use some small pictures from the development

Discuss the success/failure of these changes what worked and what didn’t why?

Show photos or use videos to help describe how the development was undertook.

1. What kinds of models did you make?

2. Why did you make them this way? (Materials / Processes)

3. How did the models help prove your ideas would work?

4. Which models helped the most? Explain why.

1.Who did you test your final model on? Why were they chosen?

2.Did the tests go well?

3.What were the key findings from your tests?

4.Summarise these findings.

1. List the Strengths of the design? (e.g. The ergonomic handle the carefully shaped handle fits well in most peoples hands)remember the two part approach to a successful comment

2. List the Weaknesses of the design using the same approach but place these in order of seriousness
Which is the most important weakness to solve?

NO photo evidence so cannot gain access to the top mark bracket
Possible Further Improvement
You must draw and describe 1 further improvement to your design. Highlight what the weakness is and how you intend to solve it. Either draw or use CAD
the weakness
Discuss key implications with your design.
Redraw the idea with the change. Highlight its USP's
Hints for a high mark
1. Based on the top weakness above – describe one suitable improvement

2. Sketch the solution in a variety of ways. Different views, close up details, section views.

3. Explain in detail how this improvement would solve the weakness

4. Discuss the implications of this change –

Would it add to the cost?

Would it make more complex and therefore more difficult to manufacture?

How could it be manufactured?

Would any other part of the design have to change to accommodate this improvement?

Would it add to the weight? Would it use more materials? More expensive materials?

Would the retail cost go up? Would the packaging have to change?

Would it still be inclusive (suitable for all)?

Full Example Folder
118 / 120 marks
Final Deadline 9th December
Good Design
What is it?
I think good design is where a product carries out its function impeccability, looks good and makes me actually want to use it.
“The best designs come from someone questioning everything. Designers,
Engineers look at the same things as everyone else. But they see something
Different and they think what it COULD BE and make it happen…”

Who said this?

James Dyson – Vaccum & Fan

WMF Whisk

OXO Measuring Cup

Select a product that you like, one that you think is well designed.

Give a short 5 minute presentation, USING ANY MEDIUM YOU WANT to help you explain WHY you think or feel it is good design.


A) Use PLENTY of pictures, especially of the product being used.
If you can use a movie then do so.

B) Give a brief history of the product who designed it, what materials it is made from and how is it manufactured.

C) A detailed description of the product and what it can do.
D) Demonstrate if possible, although you can use YOUTUBE
E) EXPLAIN why it is better than similar products.


What is Good Design?

You get marks for creativity in your presentation, content/detail and your delivery
Full transcript